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(1) A revolutionary journal, of which one issue was published in London in September 1870. Its editors were S. G. Nechaev and V. I. Serebrenikov. The second issue, published in early 1871, was destroyed by Nechaev.
(2) A revolutionary journal published in Geneva from January to December 1878 by a group of Russian Bakuninist Narodniki (Populists). Nine issues were published (circulation, 1,000). Its editors were P. B. Aksel’rod, N. I. Zhukovskii, D. A. Klements, and Z. K. Ralli. S. M. Kravchinskii, V. N. Cherkezov, L. G. Deich, and Ia. V. Stefanovich were regular contributors. Also among those associated with the journal were M. P. Dragomanov and E. Reclus. The journal analyzed the results of the “going to the people” movement and published materials related to the Trial of 193, including I. N. Myshkin’s speech. Associated with Land and Liberty (Zemlia i Volia), the journal endeavored to unite various Populist currents “into a social-revolutionary party.”