found sperm by TESE in 97.4% (112/115) of men with obstructive azoospermia
, in whom sperm were detected by diagnostic testicular biopsy previously.
Men with obstructive azoospermia do not require any other routine genetic testing.
This is a realistic therapy for most men with obstructive azoospermia. (15) The most common area of obstruction is within the epididymis.
 reported the results of 61 patients with primitive obstructive azoospermia
who underwent microsurgical single tubule VES.
Impaired CFTR function has been implicated in unilateral absence of the vas deferens, obstructive azoospermia
, and severe oligozoospermia in men (21-23) as well as hypofertility in CF women (24).
Male infertility due to internal genitalia anomalies is rare (2% of cases); it is related to obstructive azoospermia
.[sup.1] Seminal vesicle (SV) birth defects are part of these malformations occurring in internal genital organs derived from the Wolff mesonephric duct.
The use of testicular spermatozoa for ICSI has, since its introduction in 1992, been very successful in enabling men with azoospermia to achieve genetic fatherhood.10 The first successful pregnancy was achieved after testicular sperm extraction (TESE) from patients suffering from obstructive azoospermia
.11 The same year, a pregnancy was reported after a simplified fine needle aspiration technique, called testicular sperm aspiration (TESA).12 In cases of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) the outcome is more unpredictable and the sperm recovery rate lower than in obstructive cases.13,14
The ability to extract spermatozoa from the testes of men with non obstructive azoospermia
followed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) offers this infertile population an efficacious therapeutic approach (16).
These testes biopsies were taken from ten men with obstructive azoospermia
(primary infertility) referred to Royan Institute.
Fresh testicular sperm retrieved from men with spinal cord injury retains equal fecundity to that from men with obstructive azoospermia
via intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Despite no contraindications, there are hesitations about using IVM in cases with surgical sperm retrieval and selecting TESA-IVM in couples with obstructive azoospermia
, but it is an effective treatment option which can result in successful pregnancies and live births (1, 2).
In obstructive azoospermia
(OA) sperm can be retrieved by microsurgical sperm aspiration (MESA), percutaneous sperm aspiration (PESA), testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in more than 90% of cycles.