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(ôksētäN`) or


(prôväNsäl`), member of the Romance group of the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Romance languagesRomance languages,
group of languages belonging to the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Italic languages). Also called Romanic, they are spoken by about 670 million people in many parts of the world, but chiefly in Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
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). The language label Provençal is often restricted in its reference to the dialects of Provence, a region of SE France, but it can be extended to include other related dialects of S France. In its latter, broader sense, Occitan is spoken today, usually along with French, by as many as 5 million people in France; however, it has no official status in that country. Additional speakers are also found in Pyrenean Catalonia, Spain, and in parts of Italy (mainly in the northwest).

In the Middle Ages, Provençal, also called langue d'oc (see langue d'oc and langue d'oïllangue d'oc and langue d'oïl
, names of the two principal groups of medieval French dialects. Langue d'oc
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), became important as the medium of the great literature of the troubadourstroubadours
, aristocratic poet-musicians of S France (Provence) who flourished from the end of the 11th cent. through the 13th cent. Many troubadours were noblemen and crusader knights; some were kings, e.g.
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, who developed it into a standard local Romance language. After the Albigensian Crusade (see under AlbigensesAlbigenses
[Lat.,=people of Albi, one of their centers], religious sect of S France in the Middle Ages. Beliefs and Practices

Officially known as heretics, they were actually Cathari, Provençal adherents of a doctrine similar to the Manichaean dualistic
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) weakened S France, Provençal culture declined and in time the Provençal language was wholly replaced by French as the standard language of France. In the 19th cent. an unsuccessful movement arose to bring back the former glory of Provençal by restoring it as the literary and regional tongue of S France.


See D. C. Haskell, Provençal Literature and Language (1925).

References in periodicals archive ?
Marvin considers the complexity of aristocratic relationships in southern France, problems in defining "Occitania," and challenges the notion that familial, tenurial, and commercial relationships, common goals or even languages provided unity to the people inhabiting this region, when characterising warfare he emphasizes the importance of siege and chevauchee over pitched battles as decisive encounters during the Occitan War--although the latter encompassed some significant political deaths, only four occurred within the confrees of this study.
Scholars of Occitan lyric have shown that the troubadours developed exquisitely subtle forms of citation, particularly in the genre of the sirventes, which came to maturity in the work of Bertran de Born (ca.
We applied our proposals using a medieval manuscript text written in occitan.
This is the first stage in the Community Tourist Office's new editorial approach: as from 2011, this affirmation of the area's Occitan identity, beginning with its language, will be the norm in all tourist brochures.
2007, Bavarian, Cornish, Lombard, Occitan, Sorbian and Veneta, http://www.
The apparition did not speak until the third appearance and in Occitan, the local patois.
Basque (Batua and Lapurdian forms), Dutch, Urdu, Occitan, Polish,
And Montpellier travel to the Occitan stronghold boasting their new French internationals Francois Trinh-Duc and Francois Ouedraogo.
Half of them were occupied between the sixth and eighth centuries AD, the other half between AD 1000 and the fifteenth century, and all of them, established along the banks of the river Rhone, are located within the Occitan linguistic zone.
By which, inevitably if indirectly, Novoneyra and other brave Galician poets were speaking for all the languages under threat--Breton and Basque and Catalan, Irish and Cornish and Scots Gaelic, Sorb and Welsh, Lallans and Occitan .
This relatively quick-moving and insignificant case seems unrelated to the best-known activity of Fournier's tribunal, namely, the extinction of the last vestiges of Occitan Catharism.
We know that just as the Occitan love song spread to the north where it provided the basis for the trouvere tradition, it also made it way across the Pyrenees to the south (where it strongly influenced the circle of King Alfonso X "El Sabio", himself an exceptional poet and musician), and also south-east into Italy (above all to the circle of the royal court of another exceptional poet, the King of the Two Sicilies and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen, who in 1212 issued the Sicilian Bull granting the Bohemian rulers the hereditary title of king).