The VOR involves a three-neuron arc, consisting of the oculomotor nuclei
, vestibular nuclei and vestibular ganglion.
Occuomotor palsy is because of involvement of oculomotor nuclei
. Vertical gaze palsy, which is due to disruption of the cortical input that traverses the thalamus to reach the rostral interstitial medial longitudinal fasciculus.
Eye movements are a valuable window into the integrity of central nervous system structures and their changes in defined neurodegenerative conditions, that is, the oculomotor nuclei
in the brainstem together with their directly activating supranuclear centers and the basal ganglia as well as cortical areas of higher cognitive control of attention.
This study was meant to locate the neurons projecting to the oculomotor nucleus of the lesser spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula, by applying biocytin to either the oculomotor nuclei
or the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF).
The neural signals that program each class of eye movements converge on the motoneurons in the abducens, trochlear and oculomotor nuclei
in the brainstem.