Martin V

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Martin V,

1368–1431, pope (1417–31), a Roman named Oddone Colonna; successor of Gregory XII. He was created cardinal by Innocent VII, and in the schism (see Schism, GreatSchism, Great,
or Schism of the West,
division in the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. There was no question of faith or practice involved; the schism was a matter of persons and politics.
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) he attended and supported the decisions of the Council of Pisa (see Pisa, Council ofPisa, Council of,
1409, unrecognized council of the Roman Catholic Church. It was summoned to end the Great Schism (see Schism, Great) by members of the colleges of cardinals of the two rivals, Gregory XII (in Rome) and Benedict XIII (Pedro de Luna, in Avignon).
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). His election (Nov. 11, 1417) by the conclave at the Council of Constance (see Constance, Council ofConstance, Council of,
1414–18, council of the Roman Catholic Church, some of its sessions being reckoned as the 16th ecumenical council. It was summoned to end the Great Schism (see Schism, Great), in which three men were claiming to be pope—Gregory XII (since
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) as pope ended the schism. The election was greeted with almost universal joy and relief. Declining invitations to settle elsewhere, Martin made his way slowly to Rome (1420) and set about rehabilitating the city and the Papal States. His chief concern was the consolidation of the restored Church unity and the papal prestige, and to this end he made concordats with various rulers. More significant was his denunciation of the conciliar theory (i.e., that councils are supreme in the Church) that had gained wide following at Pisa and Constance. Nevertheless he followed the wishes of the last council and summoned a new one; this met at Pavia (1423), moved to Siena, and accomplished nothing; Martin dissolved it (1424) and summoned a council for 1431 to meet at Basel. In Martin's reign an attempt to prolong the schism was made in Spain by the followers of Antipope Benedict XIII (see Luna, Pedro deLuna, Pedro de
, 1328?–1423?, Aragonese churchman, antipope (1394–1417) with the name Benedict XIII. He was a doctor of canon law and as cardinal (1375) became an outstanding member of the Curia Romana.
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), who chose (1425) a successor to him called Clement VIII (otherwise Gil Sánchez Múñoz). Alfonso V of Aragón patronized this antipope out of political motives, but, gaining nothing, he made Clement resign (1429) and recognized Martin. Eugene IV succeeded Martin.