Patients with PN had elevated odds of eating disorders, self-harm, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, mood disorder, anxiety, and substance use disorders (odds ratios
, 4.66, 3.17, 2.89, 2.26, 2.24, 1.93, and 1.62, respectively).
Epidemiologists and clinical researchers often estimate logit models and report odds ratios
. Economists might estimate logit, probit, or linear probability models, but they tend to report marginal effects.
genetic profiles based on sets of risk markers can potentially identify rare highrisk and low-risk subgroups with large relative differences in risk (that is, with odds ratios
greater than 10).
(ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for smoking were adjusted for age and study.
In contrast, the odds ratios
for the association between IBD and rheumatoid arthritis from three adult studies ranged from 1.4 to 2.4, while one study looking at IBD and lupus in adults showed an odds ratio
of just 1.3.
Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios
and 95% confidence intervals for renal insufficiency using healthy/gingivitis as the referent group.
A history of eating disorders or miscarriage also were significant predictors of postpartum depression, with odds ratios
of 6.5 and 7.5, respectively.
for these outcomes were calculated using logistic regression.
The odds ratios
for early childhood death in those born extremely preterm (from 22 to 27 weeks' gestation) were 6.1 for males and 8.7 for females, and for those born very preterm (28-32 weeks' gestation), the odds ratios
were 2.5 for males and 2.1 for females.
for bacterial eradication favored the shorter cephalosporin regimen for the 9 combined European trials (1.30) and even more so in the 3 U.S.
Adjustments for other confounding variables and effect modifiers--including maternal smoking, education, folic acid use, and gravidity--did not have a significant effect on the odds ratios
There is still considerable confusion and debate about the appropriate methods for analyzing prevalence studies, and a number of recent papers have argued that prevalence ratios are the preferred method and that prevalence odds ratios
should not be used.