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(ŏdĭsh`ə), formerly


(ərĭs`ə, ō–), state (2001 provisional pop. 36,706,920), 60,162 sq mi (155,820 sq km), E India, on the Bay of Bengal. BhubaneswarBhubaneswar
, city (1991 pop. 411,542), capital of Odisha (Orissa) state, E central India, on a distributary of the Mahanadi River. A small town before it became the capital in 1948, it is a modern administrative center and the seat of Utkal Univ. and Orissa Univ.
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 is the capital. The relatively unindented coastline (c.200 mi/320 km long) lacks good ports save for the deepwater facility at Paradwip. The narrow, level coastal strip, including the Mahanadi River delta, is exceedingly fertile. Rainfall is heavy and regular, and two crops of rice (by far the most important food) are grown annually. In the south are the Eastern Ghats, which yield valuable timber. Supporting a major industrial zone in the north are deposits of iron, manganese, coal, and mica. A canal system links the Mahanadi River with the Hugli River in West Bengal. The temple-dotted cities of Konarak, PuriPuri
, town (1991 pop. 125,199), Odisha (Orissa) state, E central India, on the Bay of Bengal. The life of the town centers around the cult of Juggernaut (Jagannath), a form of the Krishna incarnation of Vishnu. This cult, unique in Hinduism, has no caste distinctions.
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, and Bhubaneswar attract many tourists. The dense population, concentrated on the coastal alluvial plain, is Oriya-speaking. The interior, inhabited largely by Munda-speaking aborigines, is hilly and mountainous. Odisha is subject to intense cyclones; in 1999 one caused severe damage and some 10,000 deaths. A devastating cyclone in 2011 caused far fewer casualties after more than 500,000 people were evacuated to shelters.

In ancient times the region of Odisha was the center of the Kalinga kingdom, although it was temporarily conquered (c.250 B.C.) by AśokaAśoka
or Ashoka,
d. c.232 B.C., Indian emperor (c.273–c.232 B.C.) of the Maurya dynasty; grandson of Chandragupta. One of the greatest rulers of ancient India, he brought nearly all India, together with Baluchistan and Afghanistan, under one sway for the
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 and held for almost a century by the Mauryas. With the gradual decline of Kalinga, several Hindu dynasties arose and built temples at Bhubaneswar, Puri, and Konarak. After long resistance to the Muslims, the region was overcome (1568) by Afghan invaders and passed to the Mughal empire.

After the fall of the Mughals, Odisha was divided between the Nawabs of Bengal and the Marathas. In 1803 it was conquered by the British. The coastal section, which was made (1912) part of Bihar and Orissa Province, became in 1936 the separate province of Orissa. In 1948 and 1949 the area of Orissa was almost doubled and the population was increased by a third with the addition of 24 former princely states. In 1950, Orissa became a constituent state of India. The English spelling of the state's name was officially changed to Odisha in 2011. Odisha is governed by a chief minister and cabinet responsible to an elected unicameral legislature and by a governor appointed by the president of India.

References in periodicals archive ?
ADB has approved a loan of USD102m to help the Government of India train around 200,000 youths aged 15-34 in Odisha,' the bank said.
The director of SBM in Odisha, Parameswaran B, said Gandhi's image or that of any of his other belongings, like the spinning wheel, his walking stick or watch, should not be used 'on the walls of public toilets, garbage bins and other such filthy places during the SBM campaign'.
BJP leaders from Odisha see this as a big political gain that the party will launch its " Mission Odisha for 2019" from BJP National Executive meet in the state.
The Kalinga Sena on Friday gave a 72-hour ultimatum to West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee to ensure normal transportation of potatoes to Odisha, failing which not a single West Bengal-bound goods truck and train would be allowed to enter her State.
To commemorate the life of bravehearts, who fought daringly against the oppression of British forces in Odisha, the fest will highlight individuals and incidents that marked the remarkable struggle from 1804-1947.
Odisha government is going to open Aadhaar Registration Kendra in panchayat of Balasore district of odisha.
As the news reached Odisha, sources in the state government said they would get in touch with the external affairs ministry to know the details so that steps for his rescue can be taken.
Sources said that the operation is being planned in view of intelligence reports that suggest rebels from Chhattisgarh might try to sneak into Odisha as the Centre is likely to step up its offensive against the Maoists in Chhattisgarh, the state which has been worst hit by the threat.
20 (ANI): The Strategic Forces Command (SFC) on Tuesday test-fired Agni II medium-range nuclear-capable missile from Abdul Kalam Island off the Odisha coast.
Project Description : To Set up Aadhaar Registration Kendra in Hidigan Panchayat of Balasore district of odisha.
POOR visibility cut short a major part of the second day's action in the Delhi- Odisha Ranji Trophy match on Wednesday.