Estrous Cycle

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Related to Oestrus cycle: oestrogen, ovulation, menstrual cycle

estrous cycle

[′es·trəs ‚sī·kəl]
(physiology)
The physiological changes that take place between periods of estrus in the female mammal.

Estrous Cycle

 

the aggregate of regularly-recurring changes in the reproductive system of female mammals. Characteristic synchronous changes in the entire female body and especially in the fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina are governed by the rhythmic processes occurring in the ovaries (the development of the follicles, ovulation, and the formation of the corpus luteum). Each phase of the estrous cycle corresponds to certain changes in the mucous membrane of the vagina and in the cellular composition of the vagina.

The estrous cycle lasts 4–5 days in rats and mice, 16–17 days in guinea pigs, 21 days in cows, and 19–23 days in horses. The estrous cycle in rodents is conventionally divided into four stages—diestrus (the quiescent period), proestrus (preparation for estrus), estrus (heat), and metestrus (the luteal phase following estrus). During diestrus, which accounts for approximately one-half of the length of the entire estrous cycle, a smear shows a predominance of mucus and leukocytes. During proestrus, which lasts approximately 12 hours, the smear consists almost entirely of epithelial cells sloughed from the vaginal wall. During estrus, which lasts approximately 27 hours, the smear contains only squamous epithelial cells (anuclear, cornified cells). Animals normally mate only at the beginning of estrus. Metestrus lasts approximately six hours; during this stage the smear shows some leukocytes among the mass of squamous cells. Primates have a menstrual cycle.

The estrous cycle is observed only in animals with normally functioning ovaries. After neutering, diestrus sets in, and the other stages of the estrous cycle do not occur.

REFERENCE

Eskin, I. A. Osnovy fiziologii endokrinnykh zhelez, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1975.

V. M. SAMSONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
The vaginal swabs from all rats were taken at 9 am daily for 15 days (three consecutive cycles and 120 vaginal swabs) to assess the oestrus cycle. The cotton swab technique was used in which the sterilized vaginal swabs were moist with saline, then inserted into the vagina, gently removing the cells from the vaginal lumen (Fig.
A number of antimalarial drugs have been implicated in infertility: halofantrine hydrochloride caused reduction in follicle size and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the ovary of the rats (Adjene and Agoreyo, 2003); chloroquine altered the oestrus cycle, lowered serum oestrogen, and LH levels, while serum FSH was unaltered and prevented the expected ovulation (Okanlawon and Ashiru, 1992); sperm motility as well as sperm counts were significantly decreased in pyrimethamine (PYR)-treated animals, and the fertility rate fell to zero (Kalla et al., 1997).
Ovarian follicular development in Holstein cows following synchronization of oestrus with oestradiol benzoate and an intravaginal progesterone releasing insert for 5-9 days and duration of the oestrus cycle and concentrations of progesterone following ovulation.
The Board will then set out the rules and regulations concerning the management of the female oestrus cycle on completion of this review.
Estrogens are a group of steroid compounds, named for their importance in the oestrus cycle, functioning as the primary female sex hormone.
** Conception rate at second oestrus cycle breeding (includes mares consecutively breeding second lifetime).