ogham

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ogham,

 

ogam,

or

ogum

(all: ŏg`əm, ō`əm), ancient Celtic alphabet of one of the Irish runic languages. It was used by the druids and abandoned after the first few centuries of the Christian era. The ogham runesrunes,
ancient characters used in Teutonic, Anglo-Saxon, and Scandinavian inscriptions. They were probably first used by the East Goths (c.300), who are thought to have derived them from Helleno-Italic writing.
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 remain only in gravestone inscriptionsinscription,
writing on durable material. The art is called epigraphy. Modern inscriptions are made for permanent, monumental record, as on gravestones, cornerstones, and building fronts; they are often decorative and imitative of ancient (usually Roman) methods.
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 found mostly in W Ireland and also in England, Scotland, and the Shetland Islands. The origin of ogham is uncertain; it contained 25 letters formed of straight lines and may have been adapted from a sign languagesign language,
gestural communication used as an alternative or replacement for speech. Sign languages resemble oral languages in every way other than their modality. As with oral languages, sign languages are acquired spontaneously and have highly intricate, rule-governed
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. A treatise on ogham, The Book of Ballymote (15 cent.), confirms that it was a secret, ritualistic language.

Bibliography

See R. A. Macalister, The Secret Languages of Ireland (1937).

Enlarge picture
Ogham stone, Sperrin Mountains, County Tyrone. Courtesy Allen Kennedy/Fortean Picture Library.

Ogham

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

The oldest form of Goidelic writing used by the Celts and found in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and the Isle of Man. The majority of examples have been found in Kerry and Cork counties of Ireland. The oldest of these inscriptions were composed of notches carved onto the edge of an upright stone.

The system would seem to be founded on the Latin alphabet. Some stones have bilingual inscriptions, which have helped in their translation. The main key, however, was found in a treatise on Oghamic writing contained in the fourteenthcentury Book of Ballymote.

Ogham

 

a phonetic writing system used by the Celts and Picts of the British Isles (see Figure 1). It is known from fourth-century inscriptions in Old Irish (Ireland, Scotland, Western Brittany, and the Isle of Man) and in Pictish (inscriptions from Scotland, the Shetland Islands, and the Orkney Islands, which have not yet been deciphered). Ogham was displaced from regular usage by the Latin alphabet but survived in Ireland as a cryptographic device until the 17th century.

Figure 1. Ogham system

The core of an ogham inscription was a line (which could also be the edge or corner of a stone slab or a wooden object) on which dots were marked, with groups of dots representing the vowel sounds; groups of lines leading to one or both sides of the vertical line indicated consonants. A letter consists of a combination of one to five identical lines or dots. Additional letters of a more complex shape were introduced into the ogham system at a later date. The origin of ogham is unknown.

REFERENCES

Ferguson, S. Ogham Inscriptions in Ireland, Wales and Scotland. Edinburgh, 1887.
Macalister, R. A. S. Studies in Irish Epigraphy, vols. 1–3. London, 1897–1907.
Vendryes, J. “L’Écriture ogamique et ses origines.” Etudes celtiques, 1939, vol. 4.

A. B. DOLGOPOL’SKII

References in periodicals archive ?
OHAM Formulation for Fractional Order Integro- Differential Equations
To show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed extended OHAM algorithm for fractional order integro- differential equations, we consider the following four examples chosen from the reference [13-15] and compare the solutions of this proposed algorithm with the exact solutions.
While executing OHAM formulation for the solution of fractional order FIDE, it generates a series of problems: the expressions for zeroth order, first order, second order and third order problems and their solutions are given below as:
17, supposedly a transcript 1 an interview between OHAM contributor Liza Gennaro and actor-dancer Harvey Evans, is also "dead.
Despite its editors' aspirations that OHAM become a pedagogical tool, the book, with its battery of perspectives, would no doubt overwhelm undergraduate students just as its limited repertoire and historical framework would underinform them.
in the case of the Duke Ellington Project, OHAM does not have any express work-for-hire agreements on file.
paragraph] 14 Still, even if OHAM's efforts to obtain such rights are unsuccessful, documentation that OHAM made a reasonably diligent effort to secure those rights may entitle OHAM to the protection provided by the safe harbor provision of the Orphan Works Act, should that Act ever become law.
Table 1(a): Comparison of Absolute errors of HPM and OHAM with exact solution for 0.
Table 1(b): Comparison of Absolute errors of HPM and OHAM with exact solution for 0.
In this paper we have proved that OHAM is simpler can easily to control the convergence and has less computational work.
These Tables show that the results obtained by OHAM are in nearly identical to the exact values and shows a better approximation than HPM and Wang results.
In this work we have seen the effectiveness of OHAM [11- 15] to couple BVP.