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(all: ŏg`əm, ō`əm), ancient Celtic alphabet of one of the Irish runic languages. It was used by the druids and abandoned after the first few centuries of the Christian era. The ogham runesrunes,
ancient characters used in Teutonic, Anglo-Saxon, and Scandinavian inscriptions. They were probably first used by the East Goths (c.300), who are thought to have derived them from Helleno-Italic writing.
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 remain only in gravestone inscriptionsinscription,
writing on durable material. The art is called epigraphy. Modern inscriptions are made for permanent, monumental record, as on gravestones, cornerstones, and building fronts; they are often decorative and imitative of ancient (usually Roman) methods.
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 found mostly in W Ireland and also in England, Scotland, and the Shetland Islands. The origin of ogham is uncertain; it contained 25 letters formed of straight lines and may have been adapted from a sign languagesign language,
gestural communication used as an alternative or replacement for speech. Sign languages resemble oral languages in every way other than their modality. As with oral languages, sign languages are acquired spontaneously and have highly intricate, rule-governed
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. A treatise on ogham, The Book of Ballymote (15 cent.), confirms that it was a secret, ritualistic language.


See R. A. Macalister, The Secret Languages of Ireland (1937).

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Enlarge picture
Ogham stone, Sperrin Mountains, County Tyrone. Courtesy Allen Kennedy/Fortean Picture Library.


(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

The oldest form of Goidelic writing used by the Celts and found in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and the Isle of Man. The majority of examples have been found in Kerry and Cork counties of Ireland. The oldest of these inscriptions were composed of notches carved onto the edge of an upright stone.

The system would seem to be founded on the Latin alphabet. Some stones have bilingual inscriptions, which have helped in their translation. The main key, however, was found in a treatise on Oghamic writing contained in the fourteenthcentury Book of Ballymote.

The Witch Book: The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft, Wicca, and Neo-paganism © 2002 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a phonetic writing system used by the Celts and Picts of the British Isles (see Figure 1). It is known from fourth-century inscriptions in Old Irish (Ireland, Scotland, Western Brittany, and the Isle of Man) and in Pictish (inscriptions from Scotland, the Shetland Islands, and the Orkney Islands, which have not yet been deciphered). Ogham was displaced from regular usage by the Latin alphabet but survived in Ireland as a cryptographic device until the 17th century.

Figure 1. Ogham system

The core of an ogham inscription was a line (which could also be the edge or corner of a stone slab or a wooden object) on which dots were marked, with groups of dots representing the vowel sounds; groups of lines leading to one or both sides of the vertical line indicated consonants. A letter consists of a combination of one to five identical lines or dots. Additional letters of a more complex shape were introduced into the ogham system at a later date. The origin of ogham is unknown.


Ferguson, S. Ogham Inscriptions in Ireland, Wales and Scotland. Edinburgh, 1887.
Macalister, R. A. S. Studies in Irish Epigraphy, vols. 1–3. London, 1897–1907.
Vendryes, J. “L’Écriture ogamique et ses origines.” Etudes celtiques, 1939, vol. 4.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Table 1 shows the comparison between the exact solution and the approximate solution obtained by OHAM. Figure 1 of the solution also shows well agreement with the exact solution.
Ullah, "Analysis of unsteady axisymmetric squeezing fluid flow with slip and no-slip boundaries using OHAM," Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol.
OHAM formulation presented in Section 2 generates the series of problems, which can be written as
The solutions of fractional order Fredholm integro-differential equations showed that OHAM is not only useful for differential equations but also for fractional order integro-differential equations, which shows its strength and potential in science and engineering.
Hence OHAM is very effective method to solve strongly nonlinear problems.
The first-order approximate solutions obtained by means OHAM, for the above cases ([A.sub.1])-([A.sub.12]), become as follows:
To illustrate the basic idea of OHAM [30], we consider the following differential equation:
(18) For a variety of reasons, unlike OHAM's original interviews and current acquisitions, the OHA guidelines were not consistently applied to the materials in this older acquired collection.
Dogara described the sudden demise of late Oham as painful and urged members of the press corps to accept it as one of the inevitabilities of life.
An advance newly technique known as Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) is applied on one of the type of time dependent partial differential equation named as generalize Korteweg- de Vries (gKdV) equation.
According to the basic ideas of OHAM [26-28], one constructs a family of equations