Ohio

(redirected from Ohioans)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal.

Ohio,

river, 981 mi (1,579 km) long, formed by the confluence of the AlleghenyAllegheny
, river, 325 mi (523 km) long, rising in N central Pa., and flowing NW into N.Y., then SW through Pa. to the Monongahela, with which it forms the Ohio River at Pittsburgh; drains 11,580 sq mi (29,992 sq km).
..... Click the link for more information.
 and MonongahelaMonongahela
, river, 128 mi (206 km) long, formed at Fairmont, N W.Va., by the junction of the West Fork and Tygart rivers. It flows north, through a valley marked by a decline in heavy industry and coal mining, into SW Pennsylvania, where it joins the Allegheny to form the Ohio
..... Click the link for more information.
 rivers in SW Pa., at Pittsburgh; it flows northwest, then generally southwest to enter the MississippiMississippi,
river, principal river of the United States, c.2,350 mi (3,780 km) long, exceeded in length only by the Missouri, the chief of its numerous tributaries. The combined Missouri-Mississippi system (from the Missouri's headwaters in the Rocky Mts.
..... Click the link for more information.
 River at Cairo, Ill. The Ohio's course follows a portion of the southern edge of the region covered by continental ice during the late Cenozoic era; glacial meltwater probably cut its original channel. The river is a major tributary of the Mississippi and supplies more water to it than does the MissouriMissouri,
river, c.2,565 mi (4,130 km) long (including its Jefferson-Beaverhead-Red Rock headstream), the longest river of the United States and the principal tributary of the Mississippi River.
..... Click the link for more information.
 River. The Ohio River basin covers c.204,000 sq mi (528,400 sq km); the chief tributaries are the TennesseeTennessee,
river, c.650 mi (1,050 km) long, the principal tributary of the Ohio River. It is formed by the confluence of the Holston and French Broad rivers near Knoxville, Tenn., and follows a U-shaped course to enter the Ohio River at Paducah, Ky. Its drainage basin covers c.
..... Click the link for more information.
, CumberlandCumberland,
river, 687 mi (1,106 km) long, rising in E Ky., and winding generally SW through Ky. and Tenn., then NW to the Ohio River near Paducah, Ky.; drains c.18,500 sq mi (47,910 sq km).
..... Click the link for more information.
, WabashWabash,
river, c.475 mi (765 km) long, rising in Grand Lake, W Ohio, and flowing NW into Ind., then generally SW through Ind., becoming the Ind.-Ill. border before emptying into the Ohio River; largest northern tributary of the Ohio.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and KentuckyKentucky,
river, 259 mi (417 km) long, formed by the junction of the North Fork and the Middle Fork rivers, central Ky., and flowing NW to the Ohio River at Carrollton. Frankfort, Ky., is the river's largest city. The river is navigable for its entire length by means of locks.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Flood Control and Canals

The Ohio is prone to spring flooding, and extensive flood control and protection devices have been constructed along the river and its tributaries. These devices also improve the river's navigability; a 9-ft (2.7-m) channel is maintained along its entire length. A system of modern locks and dams, constructed since 1955 to replace older structures, speeds the transit of barges and leisure craft. A canal (first opened in 1830) at Louisville bypasses the Falls of the Ohio, a 2 1-4-mi (3.6-km)-long series of rapids having a 24-ft (7-m) drop.

Human Impact

The Ohio River basin is one of the most populated and industrialized regions of the United States. Oil and steel account for most of the cargoes moved on the river. The principal river ports are CincinnatiCincinnati
, city (1990 pop. 364,040), seat of Hamilton co., extreme SW Ohio, on the Ohio River opposite Newport and Covington, Ky.; inc. as a city 1819. The third largest city in the state, Cincinnati is the industrial, commercial, and cultural center for an extensive area
..... Click the link for more information.
, LouisvilleLouisville
, city (1990 pop. 269,063), seat of Jefferson co., NW Ky., at the Falls of the Ohio; inc. 1780. It is the largest city in Kentucky, a port of entry, and an important industrial, financial, marketing, and shipping center for the South and the Midwest.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and PittsburghPittsburgh
, city (1990 pop. 369,879), seat of Allegheny co., SW Pa., at the confluence of the Allegheny and the Monongahela rivers, which there form the Ohio River; inc. 1816. A major inland port of entry, it is located at the junction of east-west transportation arteries.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Eight states (Ill., Ind., Ky., N.Y., Ohio, Pa., Va., and W.Va.) affected by the river's industrial pollution ratified (1948) the Ohio River Valley Sanitation Compact. Some results of their cleanup efforts have become discernible, and the river now supports marinas and recreational facilities.

History

The French explorer La Salle reportedly reached the Ohio River in 1669, but there was no significant interest in the valley until the French and the British began to struggle for control of the river in the 1750s. An early settlement was established at the forks of the Ohio (modern Pittsburgh) by the Ohio CompanyOhio Company,
organization formed (1747) to extend settlements of Virginia westward. The members were mostly Virginia planters interested in land speculation and the fur trade.
..... Click the link for more information.
 of Virginia in 1749, but it was captured by the French in 1754, and the unfinished Fort Prince George was renamed Fort Duquesne; it was recaptured by the British and renamed Fort Pitt in 1758. At the end of the French and Indian WarsFrench and Indian Wars,
1689–1763, the name given by American historians to the North American colonial wars between Great Britain and France in the late 17th and the 18th cent.
..... Click the link for more information.
, Britain gained control of the river by the treaty of 1763, but settlement of the area was prohibited. Britain ceded the region to the United States at the end of the Revolutionary War (1783), and it was opened to settlement by the Ordinance of 1787, which established the Northwest Territory.

Until the opening of the Erie CanalErie Canal,
artificial waterway, c.360 mi (580 km) long; connecting New York City with the Great Lakes via the Hudson River. Locks were built to overcome the 571-ft (174-m) difference between the level of the river and that of Lake Erie.
..... Click the link for more information.
 in 1825, the Ohio River was the main route to the newly opened West and the principal means of market transportation of the region's growing farm output. Traffic declined on the river after the railroads were built in the mid-1800s, although it revived after World War II. Comparatively little traffic remains on the Ohio, despite the new locks, dams, and channel improvements, which were all meant to spur economic activity on the river.

Bibliography

See W. Havighurst, River to the West (1970); W. Burmeister, Appalachian Waters 5: The Upper Ohio and Its Tributaries (1978).


See also: National Parks and Monuments (table)National Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.

Ohio,

midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania (NE), West Virginia (SE) and Kentucky (S) across the Ohio River, Indiana (W), and Michigan and Lake Erie (N).

Facts and Figures

Area, 41,222 sq mi (106,765 sq km). Pop. (2010) 11,536,504, a 1.6% increase since the 2000 census. Capital and largest city, Columbus. Statehood, Mar. 1, 1803 (17th state). Highest pt., Campbell Hill, 1,550 ft (473 m); lowest pt., Ohio River, 433 ft (132 m). Nickname, Buckeye State. Motto, With God, All Things Are Possible. State bird, cardinal. State flower, scarlet carnation. State tree, buckeye. Abbr., OH

Geography

From the dunes on Lake Erie to the gorge-cut plateau along the Ohio River, from which Ohio takes its name, the land is fairly flat, with some pleasant rolling country and, in the southeast, small rugged hills leading to the mountains of West Virginia. Before the coming of settlers to the state, it was covered with miles of virgin forest, but today only vestiges of the trees that helped to build the many cities remain. ColumbusColumbus.
1 City (1990 pop. 178,681), seat of Muscogee co., W Ga., at the head of navigation on the Chattahoochee River; settled and inc. 1828 on the site of a Creek village.
..... Click the link for more information.
 is the capital and largest city. ClevelandCleveland.
1 City (1990 pop. 505,616), seat of Cuyahoga co., NE Ohio, on Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River; laid out (1796) by Moses Cleaveland, chartered as a city 1836.
..... Click the link for more information.
 is the center of the state's largest metropolitan area. Other major cities are CincinnatiCincinnati
, city (1990 pop. 364,040), seat of Hamilton co., extreme SW Ohio, on the Ohio River opposite Newport and Covington, Ky.; inc. as a city 1819. The third largest city in the state, Cincinnati is the industrial, commercial, and cultural center for an extensive area
..... Click the link for more information.
, ToledoToledo
, city (1990 pop. 332,943), seat of Lucas co., NW Ohio, on the Maumee River at its junction with Lake Erie; inc. 1837. With a natural harbor and its railroads and highways, Toledo is a port of entry and one of the chief shipping centers on the Great Lakes.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and AkronAkron
, city (1990 pop. 223,019), seat of Summit co., NE Ohio, on the Little Cuyahoga River; inc. 1865. Once the heart of the nation's rubber industry, Akron still contains the headquarters of some rubber corporations and chemical and polymer corporations.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Economy

Ohio is highly industrialized, yet it also continues to draw economic riches from the earth. Among national leaders in the production of lime, clays, and salt, it is a historic center of ceramic and glass industries. Ohio's soil supports rich farms, especially where it was improved ages ago by additions of glacier-ground limestone. Although most of the state's income is derived from commerce and manufacturing, Ohio also has extensive farmland, and large amounts of corn, soybeans, hay, wheat, cattle, hogs, and dairy items are produced, although the number of family farms is rapidly dwindling.

Railroads, canals, and highways crisscrossing the state have since the late 19th cent. provided the means for transporting large amounts of raw materials and manufactures. Lake Erie ports, chiefly Toledo and Cleveland, handle iron and copper ore, coal, oil, and finished materials (including steel and automobile parts). In spite of massive industrial decline since the 1960s, which has made Ohio the center of the "Rust Belt," the state retains many manufacturing centers, with an emphasis on heavy industry. Leading products include transportation equipment, primary and fabricated metals, and machinery.

Government, Politics, and Higher Education

Ohio's present constitution was adopted in 1851. It has been amended many times, most notably in 1912 after a constitutional convention adopted such changes as progressive labor provisions and such measures as initiative, referendum, and the direct primary. The state's executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term and permitted two successive terms. Ohio's general assembly has a senate with 33 members, elected for four-year terms, and a house with 99 members. The state elects 2 senators and 16 representatives to the U.S. Congress and has 18 electoral votes.

Republicans have predominated in Ohio politics since the Civil War, but the state has often supported Democratic candidates. George Voinovich, elected governor in 1990 and reelected in 1994, was succeeded by Bob Taft, a fellow Republican, elected in 1998 and reelected in 2002. A Democrat, Ted Strickland, was elected to the post in 2006, but he lost to Republican John Kasich in 2010.

Among the large number of institutions of higher learning in the state are Antioch Univ., at Yellow Springs; Bowling Green State Univ., at Bowling Green; Case Western Reserve Univ., at Cleveland; the College of Wooster, at Wooster; Kent State Univ., at Kent; Kenyon College, at Gambier; Miami Univ., at Oxford; Oberlin College, at Oberlin; Ohio State Univ., at Columbus; Ohio Univ., at Athens; Ohio Wesleyan Univ., at Delaware; the Univ. of Cincinnati; the Univ. of Toledo; and Wilberforce Univ., at Wilberforce.

History

Prehistory to the American Revolution

In prehistoric times Ohio was inhabited by the Mound BuildersMound Builders,
in North American archaeology, name given to those people who built mounds in a large area from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Mississippi River to the Appalachian Mts.
..... Click the link for more information.
, many of whose mounds are preserved in state parks and in the Hopewell Culture National Historical Park (see National Parks and MonumentsNational Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 48,419 (19,603) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.
, table). Before the arrival of Europeans, E Ohio was the scene of warfare between the Iroquois and the Erie, which resulted in the extermination of the Erie. In addition to the Iroquois, other Native American tribes soon prominent in the region were the Miami, the Shawnee, and the Ottawa.

La Salle began his explorations of the Ohio valley in 1669 and claimed the entire area for France. The Ohio River became a magnet for fur traders and landseekers, and the British, attempting to move in (see Ohio CompanyOhio Company,
organization formed (1747) to extend settlements of Virginia westward. The members were mostly Virginia planters interested in land speculation and the fur trade.
..... Click the link for more information.
), hotly contested the French claims. Rivalry for control of the forks of the Ohio River led to the outbreak (1754) of the last of the French and Indian WarsFrench and Indian Wars,
1689–1763, the name given by American historians to the North American colonial wars between Great Britain and France in the late 17th and the 18th cent.
..... Click the link for more information.
. The defeat of the French gave the land to the British, but British possession was disturbed by Pontiac's RebellionPontiac's Rebellion,
 Pontiac's Conspiracy,
or Pontiac's War,
1763–66, Native American uprising against the British just after the close of the French and Indian Wars, so called after one of its leaders, Pontiac.
..... Click the link for more information.
. The British government issued a proclamation in 1763 forbidding settlement W of the Appalachian Mts. Then in 1774, with the Quebec ActQuebec Act, 1774,
passed by the British Parliament to institute a permanent administration in Canada replacing the temporary government created at the time of the Proclamation of 1763.
..... Click the link for more information.
, the British placed the region between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes within the boundaries of Canada. The colonists' resentment over these acts contributed to the discontent that led to the American Revolution, during which military operations were conducted in the Ohio country.

From the Settlement of the Old Northwest to Statehood

Ohio was part of the vast area ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris (1783; see Paris, Treaty ofParis, Treaty of,
any of several important treaties, signed at or near Paris, France. The Treaty of 1763

The Treaty of Paris of Feb. 10, 1763, was signed by Great Britain, France, and Spain.
..... Click the link for more information.
). Conflicting claims to land in that area made by Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Virginia were settled by relinquishment of almost all of the claims (see Western ReserveWestern Reserve,
tract of land in NE Ohio, on the southern shore of Lake Erie, retained by Connecticut in 1786 when it ceded its claims to its western lands (see Northwest Territory).
..... Click the link for more information.
) and the organization of the Old Northwest by the Ordinance of 1787Ordinance of 1787,
adopted by the Congress of Confederation for the government of the Western territories ceded to the United States by the states. It created the Northwest Territory and is frequently called the Northwest Ordinance.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Ohio was the first region developed under the provisions of that ordinance, with the activities of the Ohio Company of AssociatesOhio Company of Associates,
organization for the purchase and settlement of lands on the Ohio River, founded at Boston in 1786. Its organizers were a group of New England men, most of them former American Revolutionary army officers. In July, 1787, one of the directors, Dr.
..... Click the link for more information.
 promoted by Rufus Putnam and Manasseh Cutler. Marietta, founded in 1788, was the first permanent American settlement in the Old Northwest.

In the years that followed, various land companies were formed, and settlers poured in from the East, either down the Ohio on flatboats and barges, or across the mountains by wagon—their numbers varying with conditions but steadily expanding the area's population. The Native Americans, supported by the British, resisted American settlement. They successfully opposed campaigns led by Josiah Harmar and Arthur St. Clair but were decisively defeated by Anthony Wayne in the battle of Fallen TimbersFallen Timbers,
battle fought in 1794 between tribes of the Northwest Territory and the U.S. army commanded by Anthony Wayne; it took place in NW Ohio at the rapids of the Maumee River just southwest of present-day Toledo.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (1794). The British thereafter (1796) withdrew their outposts from the Northwest under the terms of Jay's TreatyJay's Treaty,
concluded in 1794 between the United States and Great Britain to settle difficulties arising mainly out of violations of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 and to regulate commerce and navigation.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and the area was pacified. Ohio became a territory in 1799. General St. Clair, as the first governor, ruled in an arbitrary fashion that made Ohioans for many years afterward distrustful of all government. In 1802 a state convention drafted a constitution, and in 1803 Ohio entered the Union, with ChillicotheChillicothe
, city (1990 pop. 21,923), seat of Ross co., S central Ohio, on the Scioto River; inc. 1802. It is the trade and distribution center of a farm area that specializes in raising cattle and hogs and growing corn. The city has long been noted for its large paper mills.
..... Click the link for more information.
 as its capital. Columbus became the permanent capital in 1816.

The War of 1812 and Further Settlement

In the War of 1812 the Americans lost many of the early battles of the war that took place in the Old Northwest, and their military frontier was pushed back to the Ohio River. Two British attacks on Ohio soil were successfully resisted: one against Fort Meigs at the mouth of the Maumee River and the other against Fort Stephenson on the Sandusky. The area was further secured by Oliver Hazard Perry's naval victory on Lake Erie near Put-in-Bay, Ohio, and William Henry Harrison's victory in the battle of the Thames on Canadian soil.

After the war Ohio's growth was spurred by the building of the Erie Canal, other canals, and toll roads. The National RoadNational Road,
U.S. highway built in the early 19th cent. At the time of its construction, the National Road was the most ambitious road-building project ever undertaken in the United States. It finally extended from Cumberland, Md., to St.
..... Click the link for more information.
 was a vital settlement and commercial artery. Settlement of the Western Reserve by New Englanders (especially those from Connecticut) gives NE Ohio a decidedly New England cultural landscape. Ohio's society of small farmers exported their produce down the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers to St. Louis and New Orleans. In 1837 Ohio won a territorial struggle with Michigan usually called the Toledo War. The Loan Law, adopted in the Panic of 1837, encouraged railroad and industrial development. Railroads gradually succeeded canals, preparing the way for the industrial expansion that followed the Civil War.

The Civil War, Industrialization, and Politics

Most Ohioans were sympathetic with the Union in the Civil War, and many Ohioans served in the Union army. Native sons such as Joshua R. Giddings, Salmon P. Chase, and Edwin M. Stanton had long been prominent opponents of slavery. Nevertheless, the Peace Democrats, the Knights of the Golden CircleKnights of the Golden Circle,
secret order of Southern sympathizers in the North during the Civil War. Its members were known as Copperheads. Dr. George W. L. Bickley, a Virginian who had moved to Ohio, organized the first "castle," or local branch, in Cincinnati in 1854 and
..... Click the link for more information.
, and the CopperheadsCopperheads,
in the American Civil War, a reproachful term for those Northerners sympathetic to the South, mostly Democrats outspoken in their opposition to the Lincoln administration. They were especially strong in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, where Clement L.
..... Click the link for more information.
 were very active; Clement L. Vallandigham drew many votes in the gubernatorial election of 1863. Ohio was the scene of the northernmost penetration of Confederate forces in the war—the famous raid (1863) of John Hunt Morgan, which terrorized the people of the countryside until Morgan and most of his men were finally captured in the southeast corner of the state.

After the Civil War industrial development grew rapidly when shipments of ore from the upper Great Lakes region increased and the development of the petroleum industry in NE Ohio shifted the center of economic activity from the banks of the Ohio River to the shores of Lake Erie, particularly around Cleveland. Immigrants began to swell the population, and huge fortunes were made.

Ohio became very important politically. The state contributed seven American presidents: Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, William Howard Taft, and Warren G. Harding. Big business and politics became entwined as in the relations of Marcus A. Hanna and McKinley. City bosses such as Cincinnati's George B. Cox also followed this pattern. The state as a whole was for many years steadily Republican, despite the rise of organized labor in the late 19th cent. and considerable labor strife. In the 1890s the reform-minded mayor of Toledo, Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones, won national fame for his espousal of city ownership of municipal utilities.

Twentieth-Century Developments

Floods in the many rivers flowing to the Ohio and in the Ohio River itself have long been a problem; a devastating flood in 1913 led to the establishment of the Miami valley conservation project. Continuing long-term state and federal projects have improved locks and dams along the entire length of the Ohio and its major tributaries, for navigation as well as flood control purposes.

Both farms and industries in Ohio were hard hit by the Great Depression that began in 1929. In the 1930s the state was wracked by major strikes such as the sit-down strikes in Akron (1935–36) and the so-called Little Steel strike (1937). World War II brought great prosperity to Ohio, but labor strife later resumed, as in the steel strikes of 1949 and 1959. Political unrest also affected the state in the protests of the 1960s and most violently in 1970 when four students were killed by national guardsmen who fired on a group of Vietnam War protesters at Kent State Univ.

Ohio's economy went into massive decline in the 1970s and 80s as the automobile, steel, and coal industries virtually collapsed, causing unemployment to soar. Akron, once world famous as a rubber center, stopped manufacturing rubber products altogether by the mid-1980s. During this period, the state's northern industrial centers were especially hard hit and lost much of their population. Since then, Ohio has concentrated on diversifying its economy, largely through expansion of the service sector. The state became an important center for the health-care industry with the opening of the Cleveland Clinic. Industrial research is also important, with Nela Park near Cleveland and Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus among the more notable research centers; there are also still important rubber research laboratories in Akron.

Bibliography

See W. Havighurst, The Heartland: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois (1962); E. H. Roseboom and F. P. Weisenburger, A History of Ohio (rev. ed. 1967); K. W. Wheeler, For the Union (1968); F. A. Bonadio, North of Reconstruction: Ohio Politics, 1865–1870 (1970); R. Boryczka and L. L. Cary, No Strength Without Union: An Illustrated History of Ohio Workers, 1803–1980 (1982); J. Kunstmann, The Encyclopedia of Ohio (1983); W. J. Shkurti and J. Bartle, ed., Benchmark Ohio (1989).

Ohio State Information

Phone: (614) 466-2000
www.ohio.gov


Area (sq mi):: 44824.90 (land 40948.38; water 3876.53) Population per square mile: 280.00
Population 2005: 11,464,042 State rank: 0 Population change: 2000-20005 1.00%; 1990-2000 4.70% Population 2000: 11,353,140 (White 84.00%; Black or African American 11.50%; Hispanic or Latino 1.90%; Asian 1.20%; Other 2.40%). Foreign born: 3.00%. Median age: 36.20
Income 2000: per capita $21,003; median household $40,956; Population below poverty level: 10.60% Personal per capita income (2000-2003): $28,207-$30,129
Unemployment (2004): 6.20% Unemployment change (from 2000): 2.20% Median travel time to work: 22.90 minutes Working outside county of residence: 27.10%

List of Ohio counties:

  • Adams County
  • Allen County
  • Ashland County
  • Ashtabula County
  • Athens County
  • Auglaize County
  • Belmont County
  • Brown County
  • Butler County
  • Carroll County
  • Champaign County
  • Clark County
  • Clermont County
  • Clinton County
  • Columbiana County
  • Coshocton County
  • Crawford County
  • Cuyahoga County
  • Darke County
  • Defiance County
  • Delaware County
  • Erie County
  • Fairfield County
  • Fayette County
  • Franklin County
  • Fulton County
  • Gallia County
  • Geauga County
  • Greene County
  • Guernsey County
  • Hamilton County
  • Hancock County
  • Hardin County
  • Harrison County
  • Henry County
  • Highland County
  • Hocking County
  • Holmes County
  • Huron County
  • Jackson County
  • Jefferson County
  • Knox County
  • Lake County
  • Lawrence County
  • Licking County
  • Logan County
  • Lorain County
  • Lucas County
  • Madison County
  • Mahoning County
  • Marion County
  • Medina County
  • Meigs County
  • Mercer County
  • Miami County
  • Monroe County
  • Montgomery County
  • Morgan County
  • Morrow County
  • Muskingum County
  • Noble County
  • Ottawa County
  • Paulding County
  • Perry County
  • Pickaway County
  • Pike County
  • Portage County
  • Preble County
  • Putnam County
  • Richland County
  • Ross County
  • Sandusky County
  • Scioto County
  • Seneca County
  • Shelby County
  • Stark County
  • Summit County
  • Trumbull County
  • Tuscarawas County
  • Union County
  • Van Wert County
  • Vinton County
  • Warren County
  • Washington County
  • Wayne County
  • Williams County
  • Wood County
  • Wyandot County
  • Ohio Parks

    Ohio

     

    a state in the northeastern USA. Area, 106,760 sq km. Population, 10.7 million (1970), of which 75.3 percent is urban. The state capital is Columbus, and the principal economic centers are Cleveland and Cincinnati.

    The Appalachian Plateau, rising to an elevation of 460 m, is located in the east and gradually merges with the gently rolling Central Lowlands in the west. Average January temperatures are 0° to -3°C, and average July temperatures are 23° to 25°C. Annual precipitation varies from 800 to 1,000 mm. The Ohio, the major navigable river, is located in the south, and Lake Erie is in the north. Broad-leaved forests have been preserved on the plateau.

    Ohio is one of the most populous and economically developed states. Manufacturing is the leading branch of the state economy, employing 35 percent of the working population. Mining is also important; 40 million tons of coal are extracted annually, in addition to oil, natural gas, and 5 million tons of salt. Heavy industry alone accounts for more than three-fourths of all industrial output. In the smelting of iron and steel, Ohio is second only to Pennsylvania; iron and steel mills are concentrated in Youngs-town, Cleveland, and Canton. Ohio is the country’s leading producer of electric steel. Other important industries include the manufacture of machine tools and press-forging electrical and radioelectronics equipment. Ohio is a center of the automotive and aerospace industries and also produces heavy machinery, instruments, business machines, home appliances (especially in Dayton), and roller bearings (in Canton).

    Cleveland and Cincinnati are important centers of the chemical industry, while the rubber industry, in which Ohio plays the leading role, is located in Akron. The glass, silicate products, cement, paper products, and food-processing industries are also high-output industries in Ohio. An Atomic Energy Commission facility near Portsmouth produces uranium-235. As of 1972, the combined capacity of Ohio’s electric power plants was 20 million kW.

    Animal husbandry accounts for about 60 percent of the state’s commercial agricultural output. Dairying predominates in northeastern Ohio, and the raising of animals for meat in the west. Land under cultivation amounts to 5 million ha. The principal crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, oats, fruits (including vineyards along Lake Erie), and hay.

    V. M. GOKHMAN

    Ohio was originally inhabited by Indians. In the 17th century the French were the first Europeans to reach the Ohio region. The Ohio territory was long the object of a colonial rivalry between France and Great Britain. Transferred to Great Britain in accordance with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Ohio was ceded in 1783 to the USA. During the period of colonization, part of the Indian population was exterminated, while the remainder were forced off their lands.

    Ohio became a state in 1802. During the Civil War (1861–65), Ohio supported the Union.


    Ohio

     

    a river in the USA, a left tributary of the Mississippi River. The Ohio is 1,580 km long and drains an area of 528,100 sq km. It is formed by the junction at Pittsburgh, Pa., of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, both of which originate in the Appalachian Mountains. The Ohio’s principal tributaries are the Muskingum, Miami, and Wabash rivers from the right and the Kentucky, Kanawha, Cumberland, and Tennessee rivers from the left.

    Before reaching Louisville, Ky., the Ohio flows across the Appalachian Plateau. Farther down it passes through the Central Lowlands. The Ohio is fed by mixed sources. High water occurs during the cold season, and low water during summer and autumn, with minimum water levels in August and September.

    At the city of Metropolis, III., the Ohio discharges an average of approximately 8,000 cu m per sec, and its annual flow is about 250 cu km. The greatest increases in water level occur at Pittsburgh (10–12 m), Cincinnati, Ohio (17–20 m), and the river’s mouth (14–16 m). Heavy floods occur periodically, and those of 1887, 1913, 1927, and 1937 were particularly disastrous.

    The Ohio has locks and is navigable throughout its entire length, with a minimum charted depth of 2.7 m. The total length of the waterways within the Ohio Basin is approximately 4,000 km. Canals have been built in the Louisville area in order to bypass rapids. Most of the large hydroelectric power plants in the river’s basin are on the Tennessee River. The Ohio has been polluted by industrial effluents. The cities of Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Louisville are situated on the Ohio.

    A. P. MURANOV

    Ohio

    Seventeenth state; admitted on March 1, 1803

    State capital: Columbus Nicknames: Buckeye State; Mother of Presidents; Gateway

    State State motto: With God All Things Are Possible State animal: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) State beverage: Tomato juice State bird: Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) State groundhog: Buckeye Chuck State flower: Scarlet carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus);

    wildflower: Large white trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) State fossil: Trilobite (Isotelus) State gemstone: Ohio flint State herb capital: Gahanna State insect: Ladybird beetle (ladybug, Hippodamia

    convergens) State poetry day: Ohio Poetry Day (third Friday of every

    October) State prehistoric monument: Newark earthworks State reptile: Black racer snake (Coluber constrictor constric­

    tor) State rock song: “Hang on Sloopy” State song: “Beautiful Ohio” State tree: Buckeye (Aesculus glabra)

    More about state symbols at:

    www.governorsresidence.ohio.gov/children/symbols.aspx
    oplin.lib.oh.us/ohiodefined/symbols.html

    More about the state at:

    www.ohiohistorycentral.org/

    SOURCES:

    AmerBkDays-2000, p. 175 AnnivHol-2000, p. 36

    STATE OFFICES:

    State web site: www.ohio.gov

    Office of the Governor 77 S High St 30th Fl Columbus, OH 43215 614-466-3555 fax: 614-466-9354 governor.ohio.gov

    Secretary of State 180 E Broad St 16th Fl Columbus, OH 43215 614-466-2655 fax: 614-644-0649 www.sos.state.oh.us

    State Library of Ohio 274 E 1st Ave Columbus, OH 43201 614-644-7061 fax: 614-466-3584 winslo.state.oh.us

    Ohio

    1. a state of the central US, in the Midwest on Lake Erie: consists of prairies in the W and the Allegheny plateau in the E, the Ohio River forming the S and most of the E borders. Capital: Columbus. Pop.: 11 435 798 (2003 est.). Area: 107 044 sq. km (41 330 sq. miles)
    2. a river in the eastern US, formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers at Pittsburgh: flows generally W and SW to join the Mississippi at Cairo, Illinois, as its chief E tributary. Length: 1570 km (975 miles)
    References in periodicals archive ?
    A recent FDIC study indicates that 1 in 5 Ohioans are under-banked; they have checking or savings accounts but rely on alternative financial solutions.
    That number lags far behind the 152,000 Ohioans the government expected to be enrolled by the end of February and the over 193,000 Ohioans thought to be eligible.
    The Saperstein Poll found that 54 percent of Ohioans now support a new amendment, which would repeal the state's 2004 measure banning gay marriage and "allow two consenting adults to marry, regardless of their gender," the Columbus Dispatch reported.
    Among Ohioans who have not yet voted but who say they will, the candidates are tied 45 percent.
    In late June, more than 100 processors and chemical company representatives calling themselves Ohioans for Responsible Health Information (ORHI) met in Columbus to discuss blocking the state's proposed toxic labeling initiative.
    Ohioans age 60-plus, as well as adults age 18-59 with disabilities, have access to Ohio's Best Rx as a benefit with their Golden Buckeye Card.
    Our health care system is at a tipping point and it's time to make a change that will benefit Ohioans," said Representative Pelanda.
    The poll found that 19 percent of Ohioans said that they have already voted and Obama has a 76-24 advantage with them, Politico reports.
    A staggering number of Ohioans are at the breaking point with their personal finances.
    Ohioans, who have done their job by recycling and thereby conserving landfill space and farm land, would have to pay more to find new' landfill space, while those out of state waste producers accelerate the demise of our current space.
    As Ohio Department of Health begins second round of public hearings to restrict access to lifesaving AIDS drugs for low-income Ohioans, AIDS patients and medical providers protest and testify at state hearing against illegal and discriminatory proposal to reduce eligibility for the Ohio HIV Drug Assistance Program
    His "Polluter Protection Plan" would weaken federal safeguards intended to protect the health and lives of Ohioans, and all Americans, from damaging climate change.