This method can be used to study the ohmic resistance
, polarization resistance and total internal resistance of a battery cell at different sates of charge (SOCs (State of Charges)) and temperatures.
Relative resistance change [DELTA][R.sub.p] < 1 indicates improved CNT surface activity, and relative ohmic resistance
[DELTA][R.sub.[ohm]] < 1 indicates improved conductivity, whereas values above 1 for [DELTA][R.sub.p] and [DELTA][R.sub.[ohm]] indicate impaired properties.
The equation can be used to calculate the ohmic resistance
with a maximum deviation of 10%.
The variation of the ohmic resistance
as function of the graphite loading with constant amount of AChE is depicted in Figure 2(a).
During culture, the surface-normalized ohmic resistance
increased up to 832 [OMEGA]*[cm.sup.2] and the normalized capacitance decreased to 1.43 [micro]F/[cm.sup.2].
and mass transfer losses could be decreased using membrane-less configuration that in fact makes it cost effective due tosoil acts proton exchange membrane which reduces the expenses of proton exchange membrane (PEM) .
A new double sliding mode observer was designed to identify the battery internal ohmic resistance
and to estimate the SOC.
Referring to Figure 1 and the earlier work published by Ahmad and Bhattacharjee , the procedure for measurement of half-cell potential, that is, corrosion potential ([E.sub.corr]) and generation of data required to determine Ohmic resistance
(R), and polarization resistance ([R.sub.p]) are as follows.
The symbols are defined as follows: [R.sub.[OMEGA]]: ohmic resistance
, [R.sub.f,A] : anode Faradaic resistance, [C.sub.dl,A] : anode double-layer capacitance, [R.sub.f,C]: cathode Faradaic resistance, [C.sub.dl,C] : cathode double-layer capacitance, [omega].
For lengths greater than the mean free path value (l > [[lambda].sub.CNT]), scattering leads to an additional ohmic resistance
which increases with length as [R.sub.S] = [R.sub.F](l/[[lambda].sub.CNT]) .
From the I-V curves of the device annealed at 500[degrees]C, the observed linear characteristics indicate that a high-quality Ohmic contact has been obtained at the junction area of NCD and Au with relatively low Ohmic resistance
. However, it is not unreasonable to notice here that the thermal treatment may lead to graphitization or disorderization of [sp.sup.3] structure which hampers the photovoltaic efficiency of the NCD as absorbance layer.
Considering its ohmic resistance
characteristics and ohmic capacitive characteristics, a resistor and a capacitor are in series; thus, the model in Figure 11 is proposed, which has 5 independent component values.