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oil cake[′ȯil ‚kāk]
mill cake, a by-product of industrial oil extraction, remaining after extracting oil from the seeds of oil-producing plants.
Oil cake is shaped in lumps by pressing in an Archimedean screw press. It is a concentrated feed rich in protein and fats. In amino acid content and biochemical value oil cake proteins are superior to those of cereals; they contain more lysine, methionine, cystine, and tryptophane. The calcium and phosphorus contents are also higher. Like cereal feeds, oil cakes are poor in carotene but rich in vitamins of the B complex.
|Table 1. Percentage composition and nutritional value of oil cakes|
per 100 kg
Water Protein Fat Cellulose Nitrogen- Ash Feed units Digestible free per 100 kg protein extracts per 100 kg
According to production specifications, oil cakes must be homogeneous, free of foreign matter, and odorless and not be moldy or bitter. Moisture should not exceed 12 percent. If the moisture content is high, they become moldy and turn rancid. Before being fed to animals, oil cake is crushed in an oil-cake crusher. Crushed oil cake is hygroscopic and cannot be kept long. It is fed dry or wetted, mixed with other feeds. It is wetted shortly before feeding, since moist oil cake quickly turns rancid. Some kinds of oil cake contain poisonous substances or those harmful to production. For example, linseed cake contains prussic acid, cottonseed cake gossypol, and rapeseed cake substances causing inflammation of the intestines, kidneys, and urinary tract. Consequently, limits are fixed for using each kind of oil cake, depending on the age, physiological condition, and production trend of the animals. Oil cake is an ingredient in mixed feeds.
a by-product of oil extraction obtained after the fat is extracted from the seeds of oil plants by organic solvents. Various types of oil cake (peanut, mustard, castor bean, hemp, corn) are distinguished according to the raw material from which they come. Oil cake is a valuable protein feed. One hundred kilograms of sunflower oil cake contains about 100 feed units and 37.6 kg of digestible protein; 100 kg of hemp oil cake contains 82 feed units and 24.8 kg of digestible protein. Oil cake contains vitamin E, B-complex vitamins, potassium, and phosphorus; it is low in sodium and calcium. It is fed to all types of farm animals, mainly as part of mixed feeds.