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Oklahoma(ōkləhō`mə), state in SW United States. It is bordered by Missouri and Arkansas (E); Texas, partially across the Red River (S, W); New Mexico, across the narrow edge of the Oklahoma Panhandle (W); and Colorado and Kansas (N).
Facts and Figures
Area, 69,919 sq mi (181,090 sq km). Pop. (2010) 3,751,351, an 8.7% increase since the 2000 census. Capital and largest city, Oklahoma City. Statehood, Nov. 16, 1907 (46th state). Highest pt., Black Mesa, 4,973 ft (1,517 m); lowest pt., Little River, 287 ft (88 m). Nickname, Sooner State. Motto, Labor Omnia Vincit [Labor Conquers All Things]. State bird, scissor-tailed flycatcher. State flower, mistletoe. State tree, redbud. Abbr., Okla.; OK
The high, short-grass plains of W Oklahoma are part of the Great PlainsGreat Plains,
extensive grassland region on the continental slope of central North America. They extend from the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba south through W central United States into W Texas.
..... Click the link for more information. , which are chilled by north winds in the winter and baked by intense heat in the summer. There are extensive grazing lands and wheat fields. The plains are broken here and there, notably by Black Mesa in the Panhandle and by the Wichita Mts. in the southwest, but the general slope is downward to the east, and central and E Oklahoma is mostly prairie, rising in the northeast to the Ozark Mts. and in the southeast to the Ouachita Mts.
The rivers that flow from west to east across the state—the Arkansas and its tributaries, the Cimarron, and the Canadian (with the North Canadian) in the north, the Red River with the Washita and other tributaries in the south—are much more prominent in the east. Chickasaw National Recreation Area is in S Oklahoma. Oklahoma CityOklahoma City
(1990 pop. 444,719), state capital, and seat of Oklahoma co., central Okla., on the North Canadian River; inc. 1890. The state's largest city, it is an important livestock market, a wholesale, distribution, industrial, and financial center, and a farm trade and
..... Click the link for more information. is the capital, and the other large city is TulsaTulsa
, city (1990 pop. 367,302), seat of Tulsa co., NE Okla., on the Arkansas River E of its junction with the Cimarron; inc. 1898. It became an inland port with the opening (1971) of the McClellan-Kerr Waterway, a 440-mi (708-km) system linking it with the Gulf of Mexico.
..... Click the link for more information. .
Cotton, formerly the leading cash crop of Oklahoma, has been succeeded by wheat; income from livestock, however, exceeds that from crops. Many minerals are found in Oklahoma, including coal, but the one that gave the state its wealth is oil. After the first well was drilled in 1888, the petroleum industry grew enormously, until Oklahoma City and Tulsa were among the great natural gas and petroleum centers of the world. Oil and gas have declined somewhat in importance today. Many of Oklahoma's factories process local foods and minerals, but its chief manufactures include nonelectrical machinery and fabricated metal products. Military bases and other government facilities are also important.
Government and Higher Education
The original 1907 constitution is still in effect. Oklahoma has a legislature of 48 senators and 101 representatives. The governor is elected for a four-year term. The state elects two U.S. senators and five representatives and has seven electoral votes. In 1994, Republican Frank Keating won the governorship; he was reelected in 1998. Democrat Brad Henry narrowly won the office in the 2002 election and retained it in 2006. Mary Fallin, a Republican, was elected to the post in 2010 and 2014; she was the first woman to win the governorship. Republican Kevin Stitt was elected governor in 2018.
Among institutions of higher learning in the state are Oklahoma State Univ., at Stillwater; the Univ. of Oklahoma, at Norman and Oklahoma City; and the Univ. of Tulsa and Oral Roberts Univ., at Tulsa.
The Native American Heritage
Oklahoma's Native American population is the largest in the nation—252,420 at the 1990 census. Several indigenous cultures existed in the area before the first European visited in 1541. Francisco CoronadoCoronado, Francisco Vásquez de
, c.1510–1554, Spanish explorer. He went to Mexico with Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and in 1538 was made governor of Nueva Galicia.
..... Click the link for more information. almost certainly crossed Oklahoma in that year, and Hernando De SotoDe Soto, Hernando
, c.1500–1542, Spanish explorer. After serving under Pedro Arias de Ávila in Central America and under Francisco Pizarro in Peru, the dashing young conquistador was made governor of Cuba by Emperor Charles V, with the right to conquer Florida
..... Click the link for more information. may have visited E Oklahoma. Later Juan de OñateOñate, Juan de
, fl. 1595–1614, Spanish explorer in the American Southwest, possibly b. New Spain. In 1598 he led an expedition north from New Spain, took possession of New Mexico for the Spanish king, and established a settlement at San Juan.
..... Click the link for more information. passed through W Oklahoma, and some other Spanish explorers and traders and French traders from Louisiana visited the region, but there was no development of the area.
Tribes of the Plains cultures—Osage, Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache—dominated the west; the Wichita and other relatively sedentary tribes lived farther east. It is asserted that the first European trading post was established at Salina by the Chouteau family of St. Louis before the territory was transferred to the United States by the Louisiana PurchaseLouisiana Purchase,
1803, American acquisition from France of the formerly Spanish region of Louisiana. Reasons for the Purchase
The revelation in 1801 of the secret agreement of 1800, whereby Spain retroceded Louisiana to France, aroused uneasiness in the United
..... Click the link for more information. in 1803, but the land remained in control of the sparse and nomadic native population. For the most part only traders, official explorers (notably Stephen H. Long), and scientific and curious travelers (among them Washington Irving and George Catlin) came into the present-day state.
In 1819 the Adams-Onís Treaty with Spain defined Oklahoma as the southwestern boundary of the United States. After the War of 1812 the U.S. government invited the Cherokee of Georgia and Tennessee to move into the area, and a few had come to settle. Soon intense white pressure for their lands, with the approval of President Andrew Jackson, forced the Cherokee and the others of the Five Civilized Tribes (the Choctaw, the Chickasaw, the Creek, and the Seminole) to abandon their old homes east of the Mississippi and to take up residence in what was to become the Indian TerritoryIndian Territory,
in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to
..... Click the link for more information. . Their tragic removal is known as the Trail of Tears. They settled on the hills and little prairies of the eastern section and built separate organized states and communities.
The Cherokee particularly had a highly Europeanized culture, with a written language, invented by their great leader Sequoyah, and highly developed institutions. Some of the Cherokee were slaveholders and ran their agricultural properties in the traditional Southern plantation pattern; others were small farmers. The Five Civilized Tribes clashed briefly with the Plains Indians, particularly the Osage, but they were for a time free from white interference, and they were able to establish a civilization that strongly affected the whole history of the region.
The troubles of the whites did not, however, long escape them, and the Civil War was a major disaster. Although no major battle of the war was fought in present-day Oklahoma, there were numerous skirmishes. Most Native Americans allied themselves with the Confederacy, but Unionist disaffection was widespread, and individual violence was so prevalent that many fled, leaving their farms to desolation.
As a punishment for taking the Confederate side the Five Civilized Tribes lost the western part of the Indian Territory, and the federal government began assigning lands there to such landless eastern tribes as the Delaware and the Shawnee, as well as to nomadic Plains tribes, who put up strong resistance before they were subdued and settled on reservations. The territory was plagued by lawlessness and served as a hideout for white outlaws. After the establishment of a federal court at Fort Smith, Isaac Parker became famous as the "hanging judge."
Cattle, Railroads, and Boomers
Immediately after the Civil War the long drives of cattle from Texas to the Kansas railroad head began to cross Oklahoma, traveling over the cattle trails that became part of Western folklore. The best known was the Chisholm TrailChisholm Trail,
route over which vast herds of cattle were driven from Texas to the railheads in Kansas after the Civil War. Its name is generally believed to come from Jesse Chisholm, a part-Cherokee trader who, in the spring of 1866, drove his wagon, heavily loaded with
..... Click the link for more information. . The cattle were fattened on the virgin ranges of Oklahoma, and cattlemen began to look on the grasslands with speculative and covetous eyes.
The first railroad to cross Oklahoma was built between 1870 and 1872, and thereafter it was not possible to keep white settlers out. They came despite proscriptive laws and treaties with the Native Americans, and by the 1880s there was a strong admixture of whites. In addition, ranches were developed that were nominally owned by Native Americans, but actually controlled by white cattlemen and their cowboys. The region quickly took on a tinge of the Old West of the cattle frontier, a tinge that it has never wholly lost.
In the 1880s land-hungry frontier farmers, the boomers, agitated to obtain the "unassigned" lands in the western section—the lands not given to any Native American tribe. The agitation succeeded, and a large strip was opened for settlement in 1889. Prospective settlers lined up on the territorial border, and at high noon they were allowed to cross on a "run" to compete in finding and claiming the best lands. Those who illegally entered ahead of the set time were the nicknamed the "sooners." Later other strips of territory were opened, and settlers poured in from the Midwest and the South.
Oklahoma Territory and Statehood
The western section of what is now the state of Oklahoma became the Oklahoma Territory in 1890; it included the Panhandle, the narrow strip of territory that, taken from Texas by the Compromise of 1850, had become a no-man's-land where settlers came in undisturbed. In 1893 the Dawes CommissionDawes Commission,
commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, created by the U.S. Congress in 1893 under the Dawes Act with H. L. Dawes as chairman. Its aim was the reorganization of the Indian Territory by securing the assent of the chiefs to the extinguishing of tribal land
..... Click the link for more information. was appointed to implement a policy of dividing the tribal lands into individual holdings; the Native Americans resisted, but the policy was finally enforced in 1906. The wide lands of the Indian Territory were thus made available to whites.
The Civilized Tribes made the best of a poor bargain, and the Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory were united in 1907 to form the state of Oklahoma, with a constitution that included provision for initiative and referendum. Already the oil boom had reached major proportions, and the young state was on the verge of great economic development. At the same time, cotton, wheat, and corn were major money crops, and cattleland holdings, although shrinking, were still enormous.
The Dust Bowl
In World War I the great demand for farm products brought an agricultural boom to the state, but in the 1920s the state fell upon hard times. Recurrent drought burned the wheat in the fields, and overplanting, overgrazing, and unscientific cropping aided the weather in making Oklahoma part of the Dust BowlDust Bowl,
the name given to areas of the U.S. prairie states that suffered ecological devastation in the 1930s and then to a lesser extent in the mid-1950s. The problem began during World War I, when the high price of wheat and the needs of Allied troops encouraged farmers to
..... Click the link for more information. of the 1930s. Farm tenancy increased in the 1920s, and in both the east and west the farms tended more and more to be held by large interests and to be consolidated in large blocks.
A great number of tenant farmers were compelled to leave their dust-stricken farms and went west as migrant laborers; the tragic plight of these "Okies" is the theme of John Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath. With the return of rains, however, and with increasing care in selecting crops and in conserving and utilizing water and soil resources, much of the Dust Bowl again became productive farm land. The demand for food in World War II and federal price supports for agricultural products after the war further aided farm prosperity.
Irrigation and an Oil Boom
Large state and federal programs for conserving river water and, at the same time, meeting irrigation needs have resulted in such constructions as the reservoir impounded by the Kerr Dam on the Arkansas River. For the most part, these programs resulted in improved agricultural conditions and created new recreation areas. In 1971 the opening of the Oklahoma portion of the Arkansas River Navigation System gave the cities of Muskogee and Tulsa (at its port Catoosa) direct access to the sea.
Oklahoma experienced another boom during the 1970s when oil prices rose dramatically. In the mid-1980s, however, Oklahoma's economy was hurt (as it had been in the 1930s) by dependence on a single industry, as oil prices fell rapidly. In the eary 21st cent., earthquakes in N and cental Oklahoma, due to the effects of injecting drilling wastewater deep underground, have become common and on occasion damaging. In a 2020 decision involving major crimes jurisdiction within the boundaries of the Creek reservation, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the reservation had never been disestablished and continued to exist; the decision, which did not affect property ownership, had similar implications for other reservations in what was Indian Territory in 1907 and now forms much of E Oklahoma.
See V. E. Harlow, Oklahoma History (5th ed. 1967); E. C. McReynolds, Oklahoma: A History of the Sooner State (rev. ed. 1971); A. Marriott and C. K. Rachlin, Oklahoma (1973); A. H. Morgan and H. W. Morgan, Oklahoma (1982); A. M. Gibson, Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries (1984); J. S. Morris et al., Historical Atlas of Oklahoma (3d ed. 1986).
Oklahoma State Information
Area (sq mi):: 69898.19 (land 68667.06; water 1231.13) Population per square mile: 51.70
Population 2005: 3,547,884 State rank: 0 Population change: 2000-20005 2.80%; 1990-2000 9.70% Population 2000: 3,450,654 (White 74.10%; Black or African American 7.60%; Hispanic or Latino 5.20%; Asian 1.40%; Other 14.90%). Foreign born: 3.80%. Median age: 35.50
Income 2000: per capita $17,646; median household $33,400; Population below poverty level: 14.70% Personal per capita income (2000-2003): $24,407-$26,719
Unemployment (2004): 4.90% Unemployment change (from 2000): 1.80% Median travel time to work: 21.70 minutes Working outside county of residence: 23.80%
List of Oklahoma counties:
- US National Parks
- Urban Parks
- State Parks
- Parks and Conservation-Related Organizations - US
- National Wildlife Refuges
- National Scenic Byways
- National Grasslands
a state in the South Central USA. Area, 181,100 sq km. Population, 2,559,000 (1970), of which 68 percent is urban. The state capital is Oklahoma City, and Tulsa is the leading economic center.
Almost all of Oklahoma is a plain, with elevations of 200–500 m. The western part of the state is a plateau, with a maximum elevation of 1,516 m. The Ouachita Mountains, with elevations to 884 m, are located in the southeast. The climate is subtropical. Average January temperatures are 0°–6°C, and average July temperatures are 24°–27°C. Annual precipitation totals 450 mm in the west and 1,000 mm in the east. The main rivers are the Arkansas and the Red, tributaries of the Mississippi. Much of the land is cultivated; broad-leaved forests are still found in the mountains.
In terms of output value, Oklahoma is the fourth largest mineral-producing state. The principal products are oil (30 million tons in 1970, fourth place in the USA), natural gas (43 billion cu m in 1969, third place in the USA), zinc, and coal. Manufacturing employed 135,000 people in 1970. Machine building and metalworking, including the manufacture of parts for aircraft and tractor trucks, are important. The state produces mining and construction equipment and metal structural members. It also has oil refining, production of chemicals, flour milling, and meat-packing. The electric power output was more than 20 billion kW-hr in 1969.
Animal husbandry, especially meat production and dairying, is the leading branch of agriculture in terms of output value. With a 2,668,000-ton harvest in 1970, Oklahoma is a major US wheat producer. Large areas in the south are planted in cotton, and other crops include hay, peanuts, and grain sorghum.
M. E. POLOVITSKAIA
Forty-sixth state; admitted on November 16, 1907
Since 1921, November 16 has been designated Oklahoma Statehood Day. It has also been Oklahoma State Flag Day since 1968. In 1957, in honor of the 50th anniversary of statehood, the state legislature decreed the week of November 1116 to be Oklahoma Week. In 1965, the lawmakers mandated public schools to conduct programs on the state’s history and achievements on November 16. Annual observance of Oklahoma Statehood Day began in 1921 under the sponsorship of the Oklahoma Heritage Association, which continues to hold a dinner at the state capital at which notable Oklahomans are inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame. Oklahoma Statehood Day is also observed annually with a ceremony at the Washington Cathedral in the nation’s capital.
SEE ALSO OKLAHOMA DAY
State capital: Oklahoma City Nickname: The Sooner State State motto: Labor omnia vincit (Latin “Labor conquers all
things”) State animal: American buffalo (Bison bison) State amphibian: Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) State beverage: Milk State bird: Scissor-tailed flycatcher (Muscivora forficatus) State butterfly: Black swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes) State cartoon character: Gusty State children’s song: “Oklahoma, My Native Land” State colors: Green and white State country and western song: “Faded Love” State crystal: Hourglass Selenite Crystal State fish: White (sand) bass (Morone chrysops) State floral emblem: Mistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum) State flower: Oklahoma Rose; wildflower: Indian blanket
(Gaillardia pulchella) State flying mammal: Mexican free-tailed bat State folk dance: Square dance State fossil: Saurophaganax Maximus State fruit: Strawberry State furbearer: Raccoon State game animal: White-tailed deer State game bird: Wild turkey State grass: Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) State insect: Honeybee (Apis mellifera) State meal: Fried Okra, Squash, Cornbread, Barbeque Pork,
Biscuits, Sausage & Gravy, Grits, Corn, Strawberries,
Chicken Fried Steak, Black-eyed Peas, and Pecan Pie State monument: The Golden Driller State musical instrument: Fiddle State percussive musical instrument: Drum State poem: “Howdy Folks” State reptile: Collared lizard (mountain boomer, Crotaphy
tus collaris) State rock: Barite rose (rose rock or Cherokee rose) State soil: Port Silt Loam (Cumulic haplustolls) State song: “Oklahoma!” State theater: Lynn Riggs Players of Oklahoma, Inc. State tree: Redbud (Cercis canadensis) State vegetable: Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) State waltz: “Oklahoma Wind”
More about state symbols at:
AmerBkDays-2000, p. 773 AnnivHol-2000, p. 192
Oklahoma Heritage Association 201 NW 14th St Oklahoma City, 73103 888-501-2059 405-235-4458 www.oklahomaheritage.com/ email@example.com
State web site: www.ok.gov
Office of the Governor State Capitol Rm 212 Oklahoma City, OK 73105 405-521-2342 fax: 405-521-3353 www.governor.state.ok.us
Secretary of State 2300 N Lincoln Blvd Rm 101 Oklahoma City, OK 73105 405-521-3912 fax: 405-521-3771 www.sos.state.ok.us
Oklahoma Dept of Libraries 200 NE 18th St Oklahoma City, OK 73105 405-521-2502 fax: 405-525-7804 www.odl.state.ok.us
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