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(ŏl`bēə), Ionic Greek colony of MiletusMiletus
, ancient seaport of W Asia Minor, in Caria, on the mainland not far from Sámos. It was occupied by Greeks in the settlement of the E Aegean (c.1000 B.C.) and became one of the principal cities of Ionia. From the 8th cent. B.C.
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, founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. B.C. It is on the right bank of the Buh River between Mykolayiv and Ochakiv, S central Ukraine. The leading Milesian colony and later a republic, its economy centered around handicrafts and trade. Its prosperity resulted especially from the exportation of wheat. The period of its flowering was from the 6th cent. B.C. to the 3d cent. B.C. In the 2d cent. B.C., Olbia was incorporated into the Scythian state of the Crimea. About the middle of the 1st cent. B.C., Olbia was invaded by the Getae and others. By the end of the 6th cent. life in Olbia came to a standstill. Excavations have unearthed towers and city gates from the Hellenic period and parts of a fortified wall and a temple of Apollo from the Roman period.



an ancient slaveholding city-state on the right bank of the Bug estuary. It was also called Borysthenes, the Greek name for the Dnieper River. The remains of the city lie near the present-day village of Parutino in Ochakov Raion, Nikolaev Oblast.

Founded in the early sixth century B.C. by settlers from the Greek city of Miletus, Olbia encompassed land on both banks of the Bug estuary and many rural settlements. The city proper was situated on two river terraces, forming the Upper and Lower city, and at its zenith between the fifth and third centuries B.C. it occupied about 50 hectares. The city was surrounded by a stone wall with towers, and its southern end was also protected by a citadel. It was laid out in rectangular blocks. In the center of the Upper City were an agora, which also served as a public gathering place, and a temenos, a sacred area with temples and altars. In the Lower City were artisan quarters and a port. Such crafts as metalworking, ceramics, and jewelry-making were highly developed. The handicrafts were produced for the city market and for sale to neighboring Scythian tribes, from whom Olbia received livestock, grain, and hides, which were exported to Greece, and also slaves. The city imported from the Greek states wine, olive oil, ceramic and metal wares, art objects, and luxury goods. Silver, copper, and sometimes gold coins were minted.

Supreme authority in the city-state belonged to a popular assembly and an elected council, and executive power was vested in a council of annually elected officials—archons and strategi. Olbia pursued an independent foreign policy and concluded a friendship treaty with Miletus. In 331 B.C., Olbia and the neighboring Scythian tribes repelled an attack by Zopyrion, a military commander of Alexander the Great. In the second half of the third century and in the second century B.C., Olbia declined owing to a crisis in the city-state system and the growing hostility of neighboring tribes. In the second century B.C., it became a dependency of Scylurus, king of the Crimean Scythians. After the defeat of the Scythians by Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus, Olbia became part of Mithridates’ kingdom in the late second century B.C. In the middle of the first century B.C. the city was sacked by the Getae, led by Burebistas. The rebuilt city of the first centuries A.D. was much smaller and did not achieve its former prosperity. In the second century A.D., a Roman garrison was established in Olbia, and in the early third century it was incorporated into the Roman province of Lower Moesia. The city seems to have been abandoned in the fourth century A.D.

Archaeological investigations in Olbia and its burial grounds, begun in the 19th century, have been conducted systematically since 1901. The most important excavations were those of B. V. Farmakovskii from 1901 to 1915 and from 1924 to 1926. The site of the ancient city has been set aside as a preserve.


Latyshev, V. V. Issledovaniia ob istorii i gosudarstvennom stroe goroda Ol’vii. St. Petersburg, 1887.
Farmakovskii, B. V. Ol’viia. Moscow, 1915.
Slavin, L. M. Drevnii gorod Ol’viia. Kiev, 1951.
Slavin, L. M. Zdes’ byl gorod Ol’viia. Kiev, 1967.
Ol’viia, vols. 1–2. Kiev, 1940–58.
Ol’viia, Temenos i agora. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964.


References in periodicals archive ?
Contract award notice: Reliance on hydraulic risk mitigation works in the municipal area of olbia - geognostic surveys and environmental characterization of lamination tanks - lot 1.
In a relevant development on Sunday, Iranian judo kata team ranked third in 2017 Kata Grand Slam and World Kata Championship held in Olbia, Italy.
DESTINATION OLBIA Currency: Euros ([euro]) - PS1 = [euro]1.
But in 2017 three normal road stages will be held: stage one from Alghero to Olbia (203 km), stage two from Olbia to Tortoli (208 km) and stage three from Tortoli to Cagliari.
There will also be flights to Cayo St Maria in Cuba and Olbia in Sardinia .
The schedule for summer 2017 will also include Olbia, Sardinia and four more contemporary, adults-only hotels in the newly launched Thomson Sensimar collection, plus the addition of two new Thomson Family Life resorts.
Luigi Maria Monti Foundation and Qatar Foundation Endowment (QFE) have announced plans for Mater Olbia Hospital, a specialised hospital and medical research centre in Olbia, Sardinia, Italy.
Eurodam et Zuiderdam seront plutot diriges sur Olbia, en Sardaigne pour le reste de l'annee.
New York (AirGuideBusiness - Business & Industry Features) Wed, Oct 8, 2014 - Meridiana, based in Olbia, will take delivery of ten Boeing 737 NextGens next year as part of a larger order of twenty CEO Bob Scaramella told Italy's IlSole24 newspaper this week.
Culturally quirky, geographically stupendous and very welcoming, Costa Smeralda in Olbia is proving to rival the French Riviera in the glamour stakes at the moment.
Other popular Mediterranean destinations are Malaga and Olbia in Sardinia," said Ross Kelly, Managing Director for Middle East, PJC.
I travelled to Sardinia with EASYJET, who run frequent flights from Gatwick to Olbia airport, and from there headed to the five-star Resort Valle dell'Erica Thalasso & Spa in Santa Teresa di Gallura on the north coast of the island.