Old Persian

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Related to Old Persian: Avestan

Old Persian


one of the ancient languages of the Iranian group. Old Persian is known from cuneiform inscriptions dating from the time of the Achaemenid dynasty (558-330 B.C.). The largest collection of inscriptions was preserved from the period when Darius I (522-486 B.C.) and Xerxes I (486-465 B.C.) ruled. Old Persian was spoken in southwestern Iran.

Phonetically, Old Persian is characterized by oppositions based on vowel length. The grammatical structure ot Old Persian, which possessed a well-developed system of inflectional forms, is similar to that of Avestan and Sanskrit. Distinctions were made between masculine, feminine, and neuter genders; singular, dual, and plural number; and nominative, accusative, genitivedative, locative, ablative, instrumental, and vocative cases. The verb system consisted of active and middle voices; indicative, imperative, optative, and subjunctive moods; present, imperfect, aorist, and perfect tenses.


Oranskii, I. M.Vvedenie v iranskuiu filologiiu. Moscow, 1960.
Oranskii, I. M.Iranskie iazyki. Moscow, 1963.
Bartholomae, C.Altiranisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1961.
Brandenstein, W., and M. Mayrhofer.Handbuch des Altpersischen. Wiesbaden, 1964.
Kent, R.Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon, 2nd ed. New Haven, 1953.
Meillet, A.Grammaire du vieux perse, 2nd ed. Paris, 1931.


References in periodicals archive ?
50 Old Persian HORSES TO FOLLOW Angel Of Darkness, Big Country, Bobby Guest, Capomento, Carry On Deryck, City Of Joy, Clairette, Dreamfield, Dubai Empire, Dukhan, Eagle Creek, El Hayem, Elucidation, Endless Acres, Eternal, Euchen Glen, Frontspiece, Fun Mac, Garcia, Gun Case, Havana Grey, He's Amazing, Hey Jonesy, Home Of The Brave, Hoof It, Horseplay, Hula Girl, Indian Dandy, Lady Momoka, Laugh A Minute, Morning Chimes, Muthmir, Natural Scenery, Nebuchadnezzar, New Empire, Next Stage, Night Circus, Nuits St George, Phijee, Prince Of The Dark, Rajasinghe, Red Mist, Roundhay Park, Santry, Shanghai Glory, Society Power, Son Of Africa, Symbolization, Tai Hang Dragon, The Cashel Man, To Be Wild, To Wafij, Very Talented, Wall Of Fire, Winston C, Wuheida.
Avestan, Parthian, Scythian, Old Persian, and Median were all Indo-European languages and the mythologies linked to these languages are also Indo-European.
For example, Old Persian data, which is normally taken as 'create', is rendered as 'set in place' (in line with Kellens' interpretation).
The word "paradise" comes down to us from the Old Persian for "walled garden," and it is just that feeling of escape into another, better world that we seek to share with our friends.
com)-- Magoosh is a play on the Old Persian word “magush”: one who is highly learned, wise, and generous.
Recently, she rescued a five-week old Persian mix kitten, dumped along with her mother in a cardboard box at the doorstep of an Abu Dhabi clinic.
It''s inspired by an old Persian love story where a man goes insane after being denied the chance to marry his love.
Persian kings also introduced a new writing system, Old Persian cuneiform, as seen on part of a column base from Hamadan, and on the famous seal of Darius (522-486 BC).
The Eye is informed it's an old Persian word that translates to "honourable one"--an appealing meaning for today's beleaguered engineer.
The central square, Place Mohammed V, is famous for its Art Deco architecture and the old Persian buildings that are traditional to the city.
On display will also be exhibits related to the sciences of the Quran, a 1,000-year-old rare Quran copy and old Persian and Turkish manuscripts.
Everything in the Persian Room is created by artists -- even the curtains are made by a calligrapher featuring an old Persian poem.