Szechi's capacity for clear analysis of tangled loyalties extends to his study of the religious dimensions of the revolt, because the Jacobite cause in 1715 was more Protestant than it was Catholic, notwithstanding the Catholic faith of James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender
. Catholics in Scotland and northern England constituted a minority of the rebellious Jacobites in 1715, because the Tories in Scotland were mostly Episcopalian and they were the foremost supporters of the Stuart claim in that season.
Murray initially fled to Rome in December 1746, where he was received by the Old Pretender
-Bonnie Prince Charlie's father James Francis Edward Stuart.
This is well and good, though I for one find it depressing to think that the old pretender
was so much less objectively Shakespearean in his creation of those players who stroll his world and so much more personally needful in the details of the dramas he worked out for his characters.
Occasionally this approach is carried too far: "Old Pretender
Prince Charles Edward was the hero of the Forty-five, but it was the Old Pretender
, James III, whom he declared king shortly after entering Edinburgh in the fall of 1745.
There are some surprising historical gaffes: for example, Louis XIV is dubbed 'rex Catholicissimus' (an unfortunate conration of the titles of the French and Spanish monarchs), and the dethroned King James II appears as 'the Old Pretender
', and his son James III (whom his enemies did call the Old Pretender
) as 'the Young Pretender'!
Many of these works were set in an invented historical era during the imagined reign of James III of England, who was known as the Old Pretender
He called himself If James III after his father died in 1701, and he was commonly known in Great Britain as the Old Pretender
. The name arose because he eventually had a son, Charles Edward Stuart (1720-1788), who was called the Young Pretender.
Meanwhile, IBM, the old pretender
to the throne, is attempting to stage a comeback with a re-invigorated OS/2 platform.
Called the Old Pretender
, James Francis Edward Stuart (1688 - 1766), only son of James II.
But the collection includes examples of how the Jacobites established a relationship with their Russian peers during the early 18th Century and features a letter written by Peter I, Tsar of Russia, to the Old Pretender
over 20 years before Culloden in 1746.
The title of Duke of Perth was conferred on him by the Old Pretender
, James Edward Stuart, but the British government and crown did not officially recognise the title.