Old Turkic

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Old Turkic


the language of the ancient Turkic peoples of Asia. Old Turkic is represented by various records dating from the fifth to the 11th centuries, including inscriptions on tombstones of Tonyukuk, Bilgä Kagan, Kültegin, and Gudulu Kagan (written in so-called Turkic runes) and manuscripts that are Manichaean and Buddhist in content, such as The Penitential Prayer of the Manichaeans (in the Uighur alphabet).

The Old Turkic written records display many common, specific linguistic features, including the correspondence, in medial and final word position, of d/t to the sounds z/s and j of the later languages; the consonant clusters lt, rt, and nt at the juncture of a stem and an affix (usually ld, rd, and nd, respectively, in the modern languages); the dialect variations s and š ; and the accusative case form -g, -ig/-ïg.


Malov, S. E.Pamiatniki drevnetiurkskoi pis’mennosti. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Nasilov, V. M. Iazyk orkhonoeniseiskikh pamiatnikov. Moscow, 1960.
Nasilov, V. M.Drevneuigurskii iazyk. Moscow, 1963.
Drevnetiurkskii slovar’. Moscow-Leningrad, 1969.
Gabain, A. von. Alttiirkische Grammatik. Leipzig, 1950.


References in periodicals archive ?
In Turkic language studies, there are fundamental works on morphological structure of the Old Turkic language and ways and means of word formation.
For interpretation of etymology of derivatives and their formants, we consulted etymological dictionaries and the dictionary of Old Turkic language.
One contributing factor might be a late reflex of the vowel length in the Old Turkic verb stem ya:r- 'to split' (Erdal 1991: 255).
The high vowel of Old Turkic topu 'hill, top' (Clauson 1972: 436) has been lowered all across the Turkic world: Uyghur has tope (UTIL 2: 352), Kazakh tobe (Bektaev 2001: 446), Kirghiz dobo (Judaxin 1965: 198), Altay tobo (Baskakov and Toscakova 1947: 154) and Yakut tobo (Slepcov 1972: 393).
The remaining 384 entries represent "the largest number of West Old Turkic words ever reconstructed" (p.
In the Old Turkic inscriptions of the eighth century, the designation for China is tab[?
114), suggesting in note 14 that the Bumin of the Old Turkic inscriptions is an error.
Old Turkic badruq means 'banner, flag'; here the idea presumably is that a flag is something stretched out or extended.
The second concordance lists (by contents) the fragments with texts in languages besides Sogdian, including Middle Persian, Parthian, Old Turkic, and Chinese.
The importance of this composite work written in Tocharian A is enhanced by the existence of a parallel work written in Old Turkic (Uighur) that is entitled Maitrisimit nom bitig ("Text of the Law about Maitreyasamiti"), and by the fact that the preserved colophons of some chapters give a text in twqry (twyry) language "composed from an original in an Indic language" as the model of the Uighur version.
The Turks, and possibly other peoples, also regarded this region as a national center in a spiritual or religious sense, as can be seen from Old Turkic references to the Otuken yis.
276); although economic considerations may indeed have been important for Bilge Qaghan, an examination of the Old Turkic inscriptions reveals that other factors, such as warfare with the Khitans, may have influenced Turk policies toward China.