Olea


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Olea

 

(olive), a genus of plants of the family Oleaceae. Of the approximately 60 known species, only the olive (Olea europaea) has commercial importance. It is a subtropical evergreen fruit-bearing tree that grows to 4-12 m. Its small lanceolate or oblong leaves, which are dark green above and silvery gray beneath, live for two or three years. The flowers are generally bisexual, small, and white; they are gathered in a panicle with eight to 40 flowers. The fruit (olive) is an oblong or round drupe, weighing up to 15 g. When ripe it is deep violet or blackish and often has a waxy coating.

Plants of the genus Olea withstand drought well for a fruit tree and can tolerate brief periods of frost at temperatures reaching 13°-18° below freezing. Olive trees .grow best on loose sandy or loamy soils that are rich in lime. Plants grown from seeds begin bearing fruit after ten to 12 years; those from cuttings bear fruit in the fourth or fifth season. The trees may live 300-400 years or longer. Olive productivity is 20-40 kg per tree.

Olives are pickled or canned (both green and ripe); they are also used for their oil (ripe olives contain 25-80 percent oil in the pulp). The oil that is first extracted from cold pressing is called virgin olive oil, the best varieties of which are named after the French region of Provence. These oils are used in cooking, canning, and the production of medicine. The oil extracted after the first cold pressing is obtained by heating and then pressing the sapwood and seeds; it is used in the manufacture of soap. The oil cake is fed to livestock, and the wood is used in woodworking.

Olive trees are an ancient culture that originated in the Middle East. They are cultivated between 45° and 37° N lat. The largest olive groves are in Spain, Italy, and Greece. In 1970, olive plantings in Spain covered 2.2 million hectares (ha); in Italy, 1.5 million ha; and in Greece, 500,000 ha. Olive trees have been cultivated in what is now the USSR since the 13th century. There are groves in the Crimea, Transcaucasia, the Turkmen SSR, and Krasnodar Krai. Of the 500 known varieties of Olea, approximately 80 are grown in the USSR. The best varieties include Agostino, Ascolano, Nikitskii II, Krymskii, and Azerbaijani. Olive trees are propagated from root offshoots, cuttings, layers, and grafts. Two- and three-year-old seedlings are planted in the spring. If a tree-size plant is anticipated, then each seedling is planted in a plot measuring 10 × 10 or 10 × 8 m; if shrubs are desired, a 6 × 6 m plot is used. Care for olive groves is similar to that for other subtropical fruit plants.

REFERENCES

Zhigarevich, I. A. Kul’tura masliny. Moscow, 1955.
Gutiev, G. T. Subtropicheskie plodovye rasteniia. Moscow, 1958.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Plant growth and yield responses in olive (Olea europaea) to different irrigation levels in an arid region of Argentina.
Olea Medical, a Toshiba Medical Systems Group Company, is a provider of advanced MR and CT perfusion imaging post- processing, designs and markets a suite of innovative medical imaging applications, Olea Sphere, significantly improving diagnostic process and follow-up assessment.
Toshiba will also be able to provide multimodality solutions by integrating Olea's post-processing software with Vitrea, a widely known enterprise and scanner- connected workstation by Vital Images Inc., another subsidiary of Toshiba, to improve collaboration among experts, consolidate and standardize workflows and enhance diagnostic confidence.
The company will also be able to provide the multi-modality solutions by integrating Olea's post-processing software with "Vitrea," a widely known enterprise and scanner-connected workstation by Vital Images Inc., another subsidiary of Toshiba, to improve collaboration among experts, consolidate and standardize workflows and enhance diagnostic confidence.
Olea is very excited to bring our award-winning kiosk designs to WinTech customers, said Olea Kiosks Chief Executive Officer, Frank Olea.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Southern Europe Olea europaea leafs are known as a folk remedy for hypertension.
Victor FLORES OLEA. La crisis de las utopias.Coedicion con el Centro de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias en Ciencias y Humanidades y Facultad de Ciencias Politicas y Sociales.
The biomass can be wood, grasses and other organic materials, such as solid municipal waste or industrial waste, which when burnt in a power station generates electricity without producing the pollutants associated with fossil fuel, explained Dr Maria Olea, reader in chemical engineering and catalysis.
The wood, often known as genuine olivewood, Mediterranean and European olive, comes from the species Olea europaea.