1) Six genera have Panthalassan records in Early Triassic (Palaeoneilo, Pinna, Bakevellia, Leptochond ria, Scythentolium and Permophorus), four have Tethyan records (Bakevellia, Leptochondria, Scythentolium and Astartella), one from the boreal (Plagiostoma), and three are known exclusively from Pakistan, at least during the Olenekian (Eobuchia, Dimorphoconcha and Pseudocorbula).
Olenekian (Early Triassic) bivalves from the salt Range and Surghar Range, Pakistan.
Welles (1993) referred the trematosauroid cranial remains to the slender-snouted lonchorhynchine Cosgriffius, which was first reported from the Wupatki Member of the Moenkopi Formation (of Olenekian
age) in Arizona.
Type genus: Chauliodites Heer, 1864 with 11 species from the Severodvinian--Olenekian of Russia, Induan of Mongolia, Olenekian of Germany, Anisian of France and Middle Triassic of China (Aristov, 2003, 2004b, 2008).
Genera included: Type genus, Triadosialis Handlirsch, 1906 with one species from the Olenekian of Germany; Nivopteria Lin, 1978 with one species from the Middle Triassic of China; Paratomia Aristov, 2004 with one species from the Induan of Russia; Protomia Aristov, 2004 with one species from the Kazanian of Russia; Miralioma Aristov, 2004 with two species from the Kazanian and Urzhumian of Russia; and monotypic Iphikozulu gen.
Transitional forms from Neospathodus to Paragondolella are known in the basal Olenekian
and from Neospathodus to Neogondolella in the latest Olenekian
and basal Anisian (Kozur 1990a; 1990b).
Their reconstructions are based on the integration of paleontological, stratigraphic, and sedimentological data from published works and original analyses on the studied succession, spanning from the Early Permian (Cisuralian) to the Olenekian
Consequently, according to this age assessment, in Spain (Castilian Branch and Minorca), SE France (Provence), Sardinia (Nurra) and Bulgaria (NW Prebalkan and Kraishte), where the presence of ventifacts and their potential value as indicators of an arid period has been emphasized by Durand (2006), this author maintains that, in our current state of knowledge, this dry climatic regime generally started from the late Induan to early Olenekian
The name of Scythian was accepted as synonymous with the Lower Triassic and was divided into two stages: the Induan, whose name was derived from the Indus river in the Himalaya, and Olenekian
from the Olenek river in the south of Siberia.
However, on the basis of their stratigraphic position and wider correlation, attribution to an Induan-early Olenekian
time interval could be generally justified.
For almost all taxa, diversity is lowest at the beginning of the Triassic, in the Induan and Olenekian
During the lower Olenekian
(Smithian), in the northwestern peri-Tethys domain, fluvial deposits are preserved in a large endoreic basin under arid climatic conditions (Fig.