Oliveira Martins, Joaquim Pedro de

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Oliveira Martins, Joaquim Pedro de


Born Apr. 30, 1845, in Lisbon; died there Aug. 24, 1894. Portuguese historian and political figure.

From 1869 to 1874, Oliveira Martins lived in Spain, where in the early 1870’s he took an active part in the socialist movement as a publicist. He joined the Spanish section of the First International and for some time was influenced by the anarchism of P. J. Proudhon and M. A. Bakunin. From the late 1870’s he published a number of historical works, as well as works on finance, which exposed Portugal’s economic plight.

Oliveira Martins’ historical works, which deal with prehistoric and ancient society and the history of Portugal to 1869, reflect his views as he evolved from a socialist to a proponent of constitutional monarchy. His works do not present a consistent concept of history. He ascribed too much importance to the racial characteristics of different peoples and to the psychology of historical figures. He also made arbitrary historical comparisons. Nevertheless, Oliveira Martins was a talented narrator and chronicler of manners and morals.


Historia da civilisação Iberica. Lisbon, 1879.
Historia de Portugal, 5th ed., vols. 1–2. Lisbon, 1951.
Historia da República Romana. Lisbon, 1885.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.