Olivier Messiaen


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Messiaen, Olivier

(ôlēvyā` mĕsyäN`), 1908–92, French composer and organist, b. Avignon. Messiaen was a pupil of Paul DukasDukas, Paul
, 1865–1935, French composer and critic. He was influenced by both the romanticism of Wagner and the impressionism of Debussy. His compositions are few, the best known being a symphonic poem, The Sorcerer's Apprentice (1897), and an opera,
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 at the Paris Conservatory. He became organist of La Trinité, Paris, in 1931 and taught at the Schola Cantorum and the École Normale de Musique (1936–39). In 1942 he was appointed professor of harmony at the Paris Conservatory, where he taught such 20th-century figures as Pierre BoulezBoulez, Pierre
, 1925–2016, French conductor and composer of modernist classical music. He studied at the Paris Conservatory with Olivier Messiaen (1944–45) and studied twelve-tone technique with René Leibowitz (1946).
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 and Karlheinz StockhausenStockhausen, Karlheinz
, 1928–2007, German composer, music theorist, and teacher; his first name also appears as Karl Heinz. He studied composition with Frank Martin in Cologne (1950–51) and with Olivier Messiaen and Darius Milhaud in Paris (1951–53).
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. Messiaen's music is remarkably original and personal, rich in color and texture. It draws from many schools and styles, including electronic and serial musicserial music,
the body of compositions whose fundamental syntactical reference is a particular ordering (called series or row) of the twelve pitch classes—C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, A#, B—that constitute the equal-tempered scale.
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, and is often based on scale formulas of his own invention or on his studies of Asian music and birdsong. His compositions also reflect his profound religious mysticism, which is also expounded in his didactic prose works.

Messiaen's major works include L'Ascension (1933), for orchestra; Apparition de l'Église Éternelle (1932), La Nativité du Seigneur (1935), Le Banquet Céleste (1936), and Les Corps Glorieux (1939), for organ; Quartet for the End of Time (1941), his best-known piece, composed while he was a prisoner of war in Germany (1940–42); Visions de l'Amen (1943), for two pianos; the orchestral Oiseaux Exotiques (1956), Et Exspecto Resurrectionem Mortuorum (1965), and Des Canyons aux Étoiles (1974); and The Transfiguration (1969), an oratorio. He also wrote masses, songs, and much chamber music. His symphony in 10 movements, Turangalila Symphony (1948), is considered the most grandiose expression of his theories. Messiaen's only opera is the five-hour St. Francis of Assisi (1983). His last major composition, Éclairs sur l'Au-Delà (1992), was commissioned by the New York Philharmonic, to celebrate its 150th anniversary.

Bibliography

See his Technique of My Mystical Language (tr. 1957); biography by R. S. Johnson (1975, rev. 1989); studies by C. H. Bell (1984), P. Griffiths (1985), and R. Nichols (1986).

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References in periodicals archive ?
To describe Messiaen's relationship with the Church, Burton invokes a vertical-horizontal metaphor related to the Cross of Christ, which Messiaen actually notated in musical terms with accompanying annotations ("verticalite de la croix" [vertical dimension of the Cross] and "horizontalite de la croix" [horizontal dimension of the Cross]) in a birdsong notebook dating from 1977 (Olivier Messiaen, Cahier de notations de chants d'oiseaux, Ms.
His most recent release of Selections from Vingt Regards by Olivier Messiaen (MSR) has garnered critical acclaim.
Visions of Amen: The Early Life and Music of Olivier Messiaen. By Stephen Schloesser.
A fitting climax to the whole festival comes in a rare performance of Olivier Messiaen's Quartet for the End of Time, a work which vividly captures both the agony and ecstasy of its subject (on May 14 at St Edmund's Church).
This was the same Festival at which Cage and Pierre Boulez on opposite sides of a compositional dispute for 36 years were reconciled with a handshake overseen by Olivier Messiaen.
Far more meaningful (and memorable) was the duo's traversal of Olivier Messiaen's "Praise to the Eternity of Jesus,'' the fifth movement of Messiaen's numinous Quartet for the End of Time.
Sunday's concert features works by Olivier Messiaen, Moritz Moszkowski and Ludwig van Beethoven.
He discusses the idea of "German music"; the work of Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, Nikos Skalkottas, Luigi Nono, Olivier Messiaen, Pierre Boulez, Gyorgy Ligeti, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Bernd Alois Zimmermann, Alfred Schnittke, Hanz Werner Henze, and Wolfgang Rihm; the music of postmodern composers; multicultural phenomena in new music; nationalism and folklorism; principles of vocal composition; and the influence of Beethoven on the Schoenberg school.
The result is a hauntingly beautiful, otherworldly masterpiece of twentieth-century chamber music: The Quartet for the End of Time (Quatuor pour la fin du Temps) by Olivier Messiaen.
Joanna and Cynthia will be the soloists for Olivier Messiaen's Turangalila-Symphonie - a joyful musical kaleidoscope in which the ondes Martenot comes into its own.
Olivier Messiaen (12-10-18 to 4-27-92) and his music of the "breakthrough toward the beyond" is the subject of this vigorous analysis of a highly unique, challenging modern composer.