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a city and administrative center of Olonets Raion, Karelian ASSR. Situated on the Olonka River, part of the Lake Ladoga basin, 153 km southwest of Petrozavodsk. Railroad station.
Olonets is first mentioned in an entry for 1137. In the 17th century it was a military administrative center on the border with Sweden and a commercial center for trade with Sweden. In 1773 it became the capital of the Olonets Provintsiia (subprovince). From 1784 to 1791 the city was the district capital of the Olonets Namestnichestvo (vicegerency). Until 1801 it was the capital of Novgorod Province, and until 1920, of Olonets Province. Beginning in the 1860’s, political exiles were sent to Olonets.
Soviet power was established on Jan. 18, 1918, and in 1920, Olonets became part of the Karelian Workers’ Commune (since 1923, the Karelian ASSR). From Sept. 5, 1941, to June 25, 1944, the city was occupied by German and Finnish troops. It was liberated as a result of the Svir’-Petrozavodsk Operation of 1944.
Olonets has a logging and timber distribution establishment, a milk plant, and building-materials enterprises. It also has a museum of local lore.
REFERENCESEgorov, F. I. Olonets: Istoriko-kraevedcheskii ocherk o gorode i raione. Petrozavodsk, 1959.
Olonets (Pamiatka chitateliu). Petrozavodsk, 1964.