Omar Khayyam


Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.
Related to Omar Khayyam: Edward Fitzgerald

Omar Khayyam

(ō`mär kīäm`), fl. 11th cent., Persian poet and mathematician, b. Nishapur. He was called Khayyam [tentmaker] probably because of his father's occupation. The details of his life are mostly conjectural, but he was well educated and became celebrated as the outstanding mathematician of his time. As astronomer to Sultan MalikshahMalikshah
, 1055–92, third sultan of the Seljuks (see Turks). In 1072 he succeeded his father to head an empire that controlled parts of Arabia, Mesopotamia, and areas near the Persian Gulf. His rule was aided by the powerful vizier, Nizam al-Mulk.
..... Click the link for more information.
, he was one of a group that undertook to reform the calendar. Their work led to the adoption of a new era, the so-called Jalalian or Seljuk era, beginning Mar. 15, 1079. Although he wrote a number of important mathematical studies, Omar's fame as a scientist has been greatly eclipsed in the West by the popularity of his Rubaiyat, epigrammatic verse quatrains. The work was little known in Europe until the freely paraphrased English translation of them was first published by Edward FitzGeraldFitzGerald, Edward,
1809–83, English man of letters. A dilettante and scholar, FitzGerald spent most of his life living in seclusion in Suffolk. His masterpiece, a translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam,
..... Click the link for more information.
 in 1859. This influenced all subsequent evaluations of his poetry, even among native speakers of Persian, where FitzGerald's translation led to a new appreciation of his output. FitzGerald omitted many of the quatrains (which were independent and unconnected) and rearranged them into a unity expressing his conception of Omar's philosophy; it is, however, impossible to establish definitely that many of the nearly 500 quatrains attributed to Omar are really his work. The hedonism of his verse often masks his serious reflections on metaphysical issues. The verses have been offered in literally hundreds of editions.

Bibliography

See study by A. Dashti (tr. 1972).


Khayyam, Omar:

see Omar KhayyamOmar Khayyam
, fl. 11th cent., Persian poet and mathematician, b. Nishapur. He was called Khayyam [tentmaker] probably because of his father's occupation. The details of his life are mostly conjectural, but he was well educated and became celebrated as the outstanding
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Omar Khayyam

 

(full name Abu ’l-Fath Omar ibn Ibrahim). Born circa 1048 in Nishapur; died there after 1122. Persian and Tadzhik poet, mathematician, and philosopher.

Omar Khayyam spent most of his life in Balkh, Samarkand, Isfahan, and other cities of Middle Asia and Iran. In his philosophy he was a follower of Aristotle and Avicenna. His extant mathematical works reveal him to be an outstanding scholar. In his treatise On the Proofs of Problems in Algebra and Almucabala he presented in geometric form a systematic exposition of the solution of equations to the third degree inclusively. His treatise The Difficulties of Euclid’s Definitions contains an original theory of parallel lines. In his treatise On the Art of Determining the Quantity of Gold and Silver in a Body Consisting of Them he examined the well-known classical problem solved by Archimedes.

Omar Khayyam won worldwide fame as a poet with his cycle of quatrains, the Rubaiyat. Scholars have not yet ascertained which of the rubaiyat (quatrains) ascribed to him were actually his, but it is possible with reasonable certainty to accept the authenticity of 66 rubaiyat, found in the oldest manuscript copies. Differing radically from existing traditional Persian lyric poetry, Khayyam’s poetry is devoid of pretentious imagery and of affected beauty. It is made to serve Khayyam’s philosophical ideas, which are precisely defined: the grass growing from the dust of the dead symbolizes the idea of the eternal cycle of matter; the potter, his shop, and his jugs symbolize the interrelationship between the Creator, the world, and the individual. The cult of wine, the glorification of the freethinking reveler, and the denial of a life after death constitute a sharp polemic with the prevailing religious dogmas. Khayyam’s style is pithy, the descriptive means are simple, the verse is expressive, and the rhythm is supple. The basic ideas in his poetry are an impassioned castigation of hypocrisy and an appeal for personal freedom.

In medieval Persian and Tadzhik poetry, Khayyam is the only poet in whose verse the lyrical hero emerges significantly as an autonomous individual, alienated from both king and god. A rebel and god-defier and an opponent of force, Khayyam’s hero questions the religious dogma of a divinely reasoned world order. Because Khayyam’s rubaiyat pose many complex problems, they have received differing interpretations from scholars.

WORKS

Rubaiyyate Khayyam. Tehran, A.H. 1335 (A.D. 1956).
Kolliyate asare parsiye khakime Omare Khayyam. Tehran, A.H. 1338 (A.D. 1959).
In Russian translation:
Traktaty. [Translated by B. A. Rozenfel’d; introduction and commentary by B. A. Rozenfel’d and A. P. Iushkevich.] Moscow, 1961.
Rubaiiat. [Translation and introduction by V. Derzhavin.] Dushanbe, 1965.
Rubaiiat. [Translated by G. Plisetskii.] Moscow, 1972.

REFERENCES

Morochnik, S. B., and B. A. Rozenfel’d. Omar Khaiiam —poet, myslitel’, uchenyi. [Dushanbe] 1957.
Aliev, R. M., and M.-N. Osmanov. Omar Khaiiam. Moscow, 1959.
Rozenfel’d, B. A., and A. P. Iushkevich. Omar Khaiiam. Moscow, 1965.
Swami Gowinda Tirtha. The Nectar of Grace: Omar Khayyam’s Life and Works. Allahabad [1941].
Ali Dashti. Dami ba Khaiiam. Tehran, A.H. 1348 (A.D. 1969).
Ali Dashti. In Search of Omar Khayyam. London, 1971.

M.-N. O. OSMANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Ramzan (54no) helped make short work of the reply to see Omar Khayyam home on 112-1.
Division One: MSV 94-6 (Lazenby 53no) bt Omar Khayyam 92-5 (Ramzan 44no); Jap Parts UK 102-2 (Ayubi 45, Ayub 45no) bt Azaad 98 (Tahir 6-25); JMG Joiners 70-3 bt Pot and Glass 67-7 (Kean 40); McKenna Sports 135-7 (Shahid 35, Hussain 55no) bt Stafford Place 81-5 (Metcalfe 35no).
Corus SSC 95-5 bt Winning Post 93; Hutton Rudby 80-8 lost to BASF 84-3 (Harrison 46no); Samuelsons 89-9 (Connell 32) lost to Redcar CLP 84-5 (Jefferson 34); Hanley's Halal SB 67 lost to Pizza Pavilion 68 for 3; Shaws 100-6 lost to Hart Telecom 115-5 (Laing 50); McKenna 104-9 beat GV Decorators 78-6; Cowpen Bewley 92 (Ghafoor 4-29) lost to Omar Khayyam 95-1 (Ali 43no, Rashid 46no); Stockton CC 115-5 beat Azaad 114 (Warral 5-28); Pot and Glass 87-9 (Kean 31, Whitehouse 4-18) bt Station Hotel 83 (Clark 33, Harrison 4-24); University of Teesside bt Yarm.
Div A: Pot & Glass 67-7 lost to Jap Parts UK 119-4 (Ayub 37); Azaad 76-9 (Bilal 32 Hussain 5-11) lost to MSV 77-1 (Nair 49no); McKenna Motors 125-6 (Rashid 33) beat JMG Joiners 78 (Austin 34, Goodchild 5-11); Stafford Place 89-4 (Dex 49) lost to Omar Khayyam 191-4 (Ramzan 42, Rashid 112).
All Amber would say was that it was in Farsi and was poetry by Omar Khayyam.
Many of his compositions have been inspired by the poetry of Omar Khayyam, Hafez and Rumi.
In the editor's note to my article in the October issue of Catholic Insight, 'The case against de Chardin,' we read, "If it was not for his reputation as a scientist--unmerited, in my opinion--his books would be relegated to the section of the shelf containing The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam and Tales of the Arabian Nights.
TEHRAN (FNA)- A statue of Persian classic Poet Omar Khayyam (1048-1131) is scheduled to be installed in Manhattan, New York City, media reports said.
More than 10 centuries back, the famous astrologer, historian and theologian Omar Khayyam, raised the same question in one of his rubai-yat (poems): "Myself when young did eagerly frequent / Doctor and Saint, and heard great Argument / About it and about: but evermore / Came out by the same Door as in I went.
In this essay, I turn to a Victorian text that offers an early articulation of some of the insights that have come to inform the critical study of the secular today: Edward FitzGerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, which had arguably become "by far the best known and most popular poem in the English language" at the end of the nineteenth century.
Omar Khayyam is the best known and most popular Persian poet in the world.
The English-speaking world came to know him as a poet after Edward Fitzgerald published a translation of his "Rubaiyat" (Quatrains) in 1839, but Persian scholar Omar Khayyam was a leading mathematician, with key discoveries to his credit.