onion

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onion,

plant of the family Liliaceae (lilylily,
common name for the Liliaceae, a plant family numbering several thousand species of as many as 300 genera, widely distributed over the earth and particularly abundant in warm temperate and tropical regions.
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 family), of the same genus (Allium) as the chive (A. schoenoprasum), garlic (A. sativum), leek (A. porrum), and shallot (A. ascalonium). These plants are characterized by an edible bulb composed of food-storage leaves that are rich in sugar and a pungent oil, the source of its strong taste. The above-ground green leaves, typically long and tubular, are also eaten. All these species are believed to be native to SW Asia and are known to have been cultivated since ancient times. The onion (A. cepa), no longer found wild, is a biennial now grown in many varieties throughout the world as a table vegetable. Common varieties include the strong-flavored red onion, the milder yellow onion, and the bland white onion. Pearl onions are small white onions used for pickling. The large Spanish and Bermuda onions have a delicate flavor. The onion was grown extensively by the ancient Egyptians, in whose writings it is mentioned, and was later spread by the Spanish colonists. The more pungent garlic, a perennial, has a bulb consisting of small bulbils called cloves. This part is most often used in cooking, chiefly as flavoring; garlic is especially popular in the Mediterranean region and East Asia. Used as a folk remedy for thousands of years, scientific investigation is confirming garlic's usefulness as a blood thinner, antioxidant, and cancer preventive. The shallot (supposedly introduced to Europe from Ascalon, or Ashqelon, by the Crusaders, hence the botanical name) is a perennial with clusters of small onionlike bulbs. It and the more familiar leek, a biennial with a small single bulb, are both commonly used fresh in salads, as asparaguslike cooked vegetables, and in soups and stews. The leek, cultivated in ancient Egypt and probably introduced to England by the Romans, is the floral emblem of the Welsh, who adorn their hats with its leaves on St. David's Day. Scallion is a popular term for any edible Allium with a reduced bulb, especially the leek and shallot. The Welsh onion (A. fistulosum) is a leeklike plant popular in Asia. The chive, today found wild in Italy and Greece, is a hardy perennial sometimes used as an ornamental border plant. For flavoring, its leaves are the most desirable portion. Several species of Allium are native to North America, where the edible types were collected by Native Americans. The ramp or wild leek (A. tricoccum) has a garlicky onion flavor. Found in E North America, it has a narrow bulb, thin reddish stem, and two to three elliptical, lancelike leaves. It is prized as a spring vegetable and is overharvested in some areas. Because of the disagreeable odor and taste imparted to the milk of cows that feed upon them, some species are considered weeds, especially the common wild garlic, A. vineale, naturalized from Europe. Onion is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Liliopsida, order Liliales, family Liliaceae.

onion

[′ən·yən]
(botany)
Allium cepa. A biennial plant in the order Liliales cultivated for its edible bulb.
Any plant of the genus Allium.

onion

1. an alliaceous plant, Allium cepa, having greenish-white flowers: cultivated for its rounded edible bulb
2. the bulb of this plant, consisting of concentric layers of white succulent leaf bases with a pungent odour and taste
3. any of several related plants similar to A. cepa, such as A. fistulosum (Welsh onion)
References in periodicals archive ?
Richard Massey of Marshalls Seeds tells me that from a 35-foot row of around 100 onion sets you can expect to harvest around 50lbs of onions - that should be more than enough to keep the average family going.
Onion sets are readily available in the spring in our area--paper bags of usually yellow sets of variable quality and unknown parentage and source, but probably all the same.
The onion sets are 25 each of top varieties Sturon and Red Baron.
Order seeds and young plants from mail-order suppliers and buy seed potatoes, shallots and onion sets as soon as they're available.
Onion sets and garden pea seeds do not need to wait longer than the second week of April.
Plant onion sets around 10-15cm (4-6in) apart in rows the same distance apart.
If you plant onion sets (bulbs) in the radish/carrot row, they should be at least 8-10 inches apart unless you plan to eat them green, because the maturing onion bulbs will take up too much room and crowd the carrots.
AAs they are already partly grown onion sets are more reliable, particularly in Scotland.
Ground rules Plant the onion sets, with just the tips showing, about 10cm apart.
Autumn onion sets and garlic can be planted out now, too.
Soon Tony number two joined us and asked Ron if he had put his onion sets out yet.
According to Tony, the secret to successfully growing onions is to make sure the soil is wellfertilised before you plant the onion sets.