Lars Onsager

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Onsager, Lars

 

Born Nov. 27, 1903, in Oslo. Theoretical physicist and physical chemist; of Norwegian nationality.

Onsager graduated from the Norwegian Technical Institute in Trondheim in 1925. Since 1928 he has lived and worked in the USA. He became a professor at Yale University in 1940. His main works deal with theories of irreversible processes, phase transitions, and electrolytes. In 1926 he derived the Onsager equation of electrical conductivity. In 1931, Onsager discovered the principle of the symmetry of kinetic coefficients, which became the basis of the phenomenological thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes. In 1942 he derived an exact solution of the two-dimensional Ising problem (published 1944). The solution predicts a logarithmic dependence of the specific heat on the temperature near the critical point. Onsager also proposed a theory of quantumized vortices in superfluid helium. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1968.

WORKS

“Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes.” Physical Review, 1931,
vol. 38, no. 12, p. 2265. “Crystal Statistics.” Ibid., 1944, vol. 65, nos. 3–4.
“Statistical Hydrodynamics.” Nuovo Cimento, 1949. Supplement to vol. 6, series 9, no. 2.
“The Electric Properties of Ice.” In Electrolytes. Oxford, 1962. (With M. Dupuis.)

D. N. ZUBAREV

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Interdiffusion: compatibility of Darken and Onsager formalisms.
It is clear from (14) and (28) that both the single relaxation time and sound attenuation coefficient depend on the phenomenological Onsager rate coefficient (L).
Berry JS, Onsager JA, Kemp WP, McNary T, Larsen J, Legg D, Lockwood JA, Foster RN (2000) Assessing rangeland grasshopper populations.
More rigorous derivations of [F.sub.z.sup.dr] taking into account hydrodynamic motion of the solvent were performed successively by Zwanzig [7], Hubbard and Douglas [17], and Hubbard and Onsager [18].
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Onsager (53) generalized the Lorentz theory by distinguishing between the internal field that acts on induced dipoles and the directing field that acts on permanent dipoles.
Rees & Onsager (1985), mencionan que este insecto es muy voraz y captura al chapulin en pleno vuelo, ademas, de las 856 especies reportadas 26 depredan chapulin y solo seis tienen definida su preferencia por este insecto.
Los acridios figuran entre los principales consumidores primarios en los sistemas de pastizal (Hewitt & Onsager 1983, O'Neill et al.
A concentracao [C.sub.1] (x, y, z, t) do soluto utilizado e a concentracao [C.sub.2] (x, y, z, t) de agua num ponto P(x, y, z) [member of] [omega] e num instante t, podem ser descritas a partir das equacoes de Onsager (33) para as concentracoes dos solutos:
In the case of Soret diffusion, species gradients are established in an otherwise uniform concentration mixture in accordance with Onsager reciprocal relationship.
En su trabajo inicial Onsager (1949), demostro que a densidades suficientemente altas, un fluido que contiene moleculas con una geometria de varillas duras puede presentar en forma espontonea, una transicion de fase Isotropico-Nemotico (I-N), es decir, una fase ordenada orientacionalmente, por lo cual, puede ser considerado como la piedra angular para teorias moleculares, cuyo objetivo sea describir dicha transicion, dicha teoria presenta limitaciones al tratar de predecir cuantitativamente dicha transicion para varillas duras de elongaciones intermedias, pero para varillas infinitamente grandes los resultados son exactos.
(3) is not consistent with restrictions given by Gibbs-Duhem equation and by Onsager's reciprocity relations.