the removal of rock covering and containing a mineral in opencut mining. Covering rock that does not contain useful components is called empty rock and is removed to exterior or internal dumps. If the covering rock (such as clay, sand, limestone, and chalk) is useful as a building material, it then undergoes further processing (crushing, sorting, and so on), after which it is sent to consumers. Opening operations include processes of preparing rocks for removal, removal and loading work, transportation, and slag dumping,
Opening operations are performed during construction of a quarry, for making the first stage for extraction operations, and for maintaining and developing that stage. Various rock-hauling and dumping devices, as well as special assemblies, are used for opening operations. The method of performing opening operations is regulated by the processing system used.
REFERENCERzhevskii, V. V. Tekhnologiia i kompleksnaia mekhanizatsiia otkrytykh gornykh rabot. Moscow, 1968.
B. P. IUMATOV