While in operant learning
, event 1 increases in probability of occurrence as a result of systematic event 1--event 2 pairings; in respondent learning, it is the magnitude (and likelihood) of event 2 that increases.
On the contrary, the kind of learning that takes place in early language acquisition can almost entirely be accounted for by operant learning
Relative effectiveness of episodic and conjugate reinforcement on child operant learning
This capacity for operant learning
enhances fitness during phylogenetic development.
Indeed, empirical research has repeatedly demonstrated that through operant learning
, humans can gain volitional control over numerous different internal physiological functions and the principle means of developing this control has been with consequences delivered via biofeedback (Schwartz & Olsen, 1995).
The purpose of the analyses in this brief report was to determine the relative efficiency of response-contingent and response-independent stimulation on child operant learning
and two concomitant child behavior (visual attention and affective behavior).
All of these programs follow principles of operant learning
but also make use of adjunctive strategies aimed at verbal discourse exercises, designed to promote stronger positive connections between parents and their children (see Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group, 1999; Eyberg, 1988; Feinfield & Baker, 2004; Forehand & McMahon, 1981; Schoenwald, Sheidow, Letourneau, & Liao, 2003; Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Hammond, 2004).
2005) Implicit Operant Learning
of Pain Sensitization.
Baron & Menich, 1985; Baron, Menich, & Perone, 1983; Perone & Baron, 1982; Plaud, Gillund, & Ferraro, 2000), to our knowledge, only two basic studies of the degree to which operant learning
can occur in older adults with dementia have been published (Ankus & Quarrington, 1972; Burgess, Wearden, Cox, & Rae, 1992) and we know of none that have appeared since 1992.
Keywords: Infants, premature infants, operant techniques, operant learning
, cognitive processes, development.
Our data, showing that neonatal isolation slowed the rate of acquiring a lever press task, suggest that early life separation can also impair the acquisition of operant learning
For instance, according to the authors: (a) "the instrumental behavior of relational framing alters the functions of behavioral processes," (b) "relational framing is operant behavior that affects the process of operant learning
itself," and (c) "The new process is arbitrarily applicable relational responding (or framing events relationally).