Brittle stars (class Ophiuroidea) with ancestral indirect development go through the swimming, feeding ophiopluteus larva stage (MacBride, 1907; Mortensen, 1921, 1931, 1937, 1938; Narasimhamurti, 1933; Olsen, 1942; Hendler, 1975; Rumrill, 1984; Mladenov, 1985; Yamashita, 1985).
The bilaterally symmetrical nervous system of the ophiopluteus first forms at the anterior end (apical organ) of the late gastrula stage embryo; and later it is associated with the ciliary band, oral epidermis, and digestive system of the larva (Cisternas and Byrne, 2003; Byrne et al., 2008; Hirokawa et al., 2008; Dupont et al., 2009; Gliznutsa and Dautov, 2011).
Entre ellos cabe destacar la presencia de los estadios larvales de briozoarios, equinodermos (larvas ophiopluteus
), braquiopodos, poliquetos, mysis, megalopas y de bivalvos, que forman parte del merozooplancton.
Dahl,1894 Subeucalanus pileatus Echinodermata (Ophiopluteus
) Giesbrecht, 1888 Centropages furcatus (Dana, 1849) Chaetognatha Pseudodiaptomus acutus Sagitta enflata Grassi, 1881 (F.
The echinoderms, such as Amphiura filiformis, have several larval stages, one of which, the ophiopluteus
, is very abundant in the coastal plankton for a few weeks.
It has almost universally been concluded that the various types of feeding echinoderm larvae--echinoplu-teus, ophiopluteus
, bipinnaria, and auricularia--and the en-teropneust tornaria are all evolved from a planktotrophic dipleurula larva, which was the larva of the common am-bulacrarian ancestor (Byrne et al., 2007; Raff, 2008).
Ophionereis fasciata Hutton, 1872, endemic to New Zealand, is a planktotrophic developer (egg diameter 103 [micro]m) with a typical ophiopluteus
Likewise, Strathmann et al., (1994) and Strathmann (1996) briefly reported observations similar to ours with an ophiopluteus
, as well as observations of faster accumulation of resources for postlarval structures in well-fed holothuroid larvae (Strathmann et al., 1994).
The length of the postero-lateral arm in the largest 8-armed ophiopluteus
larvae is about 700 [micro]m, and the postero-lateral rod is a spiral structure in the middle of this arm (Fig.
The larval skeleton, though reduced, consists of four rods corresponding to the body, posterolateral, anterolateral, and postoral rods characteristic of an ophiopluteus
. Due to a heterochrony in larval skeletogenesis, the postoral rods develop early and simultaneously with the other rods.
Like asteroids, secondary larvae of Ophiopholis aculeata and of an unidentified ophiopluteus
collected from the Western Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Florida originate from the release and development of primary larval structures, specifically, the posterolateral arms.
Use of dissolved organic matter during brooding in Amphipholis squamata: implications for editing the developmental program of the ophiopluteus