Ophthalmoplegia


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Related to Ophthalmoplegia: ophthalmoplegic migraine

Ophthalmoplegia

 

a paralysis of one or more cranial nerves by which the eye muscles are innervated. Ophthalmoplegia may be congenital—a result of underdevelopment of the nuclei of the oculomotor nerves—or acquired as a sequela of inflammatory, toxic, or traumatic lesions in the brain. It can occur in one or both eyes.

Several forms of ophthalmoplegia are distinguished. External ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of the external ocular muscles with retention of function in the internal muscles. Internal ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of the internal ocular muscles with retention of function in the external muscles. Total ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis of both internal and external muscle groups. With the external form, the eyeball becomes rigid, although the pupillary reaction to light is not affected. With the internal form, the movements of the eyeball remain normal, but the pupillary reaction disappears and accommodation and convergence are impaired. Ophthalmoplegia is treated by eliminating the underlying cause.

References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, there were nonneurologic abnormalities as well.[4],[7],[23] In our study, the clinical features included developmental delay or regression, mental retardation, weakness, hearing impairment, visual deterioration, ophthalmoplegia, respiratory dysfunction, hypotonic, ataxia, and dyskinesia such as tremor and dystonia.
Patient 11:7 is a 54 year old man who was born with bilateral ophthalmoplegia and ptosis.
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) contributed by Jason J S Barton, University of British Columbia, May 2008 [online] 2016 [cited 2016 May 29].
Involvement of extraocular muscles is usually bilateral but does not suggest a specific pattern such as an involvement of one nerve or a pattern such as internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) or conjugate gaze palsy, which are seen in disorders of the brainstem.
Woods, "Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia as a presenting sign of multiple sclerosis: an interdisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management," The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, vol.
Based on the ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, altered mental status, visual symptom, and confirmatory findings in the MRI, the diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy was established.
Sacconi et al., "Mitochondrial myopathy and ophthalmoplegia in a sporadic patient with the G12315A mutation in mitochondrial DNA," Neuromuscular Disorders, vol.
This mutation was already described in 2008 by Kornblum, who reported a 22-year-old male patient of Turkish ethnic origin with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and exercise intolerance [7].
The neurological examination was unremarkable, mentioning absence of ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus, areflexia, gait instability, or primitive reflexes.
Ophthalmoplegia and ptosis were the periorbital signs found in our study and were observed in one patient (Figure 6).
[4,6,7] Systemic effects include paraesthesiae of the tongue and lips, ophthalmoplegia characterised by visual disturbances, ptosis, fixed dilated pupils and loss of eye movements and accommodation, as well as loss of the sense of smell (anosmia) and taste.