Opisthorchiasis


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Related to Opisthorchiasis: paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, giardiasis

Opisthorchiasis

 

a helminthic disease that affects the liver and pancreas. Opisthorchiasis is prevalent in Western Siberia and in the region of the Dnieper. The causative agent, the Siberian liver fluke (Opisthorchis felineus), infests the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas of man, cats, and dogs. The main sources of the disease are infected persons and animals, whose feces carry the parasite’s eggs to water. The eggs are swallowed by snails, in which the larvae of the flukes reproduce. Finally, the flukes emerge into the water as cercariae that encyst on cyprinid fish, such as the ide, dace, and roach. Man becomes infected by eating raw or insufficiently fried or salted fish.

The early symptoms of opisthorchiasis are fever, hives, and aching muscles and joints. Pain subsequently develops in the right hypochondriac and epigastric regions. The liver and gallbladder are frequently enlarged. Chloxylum is used in the treatment of the disease. Opisthorchiasis is prevented by eating only well-cooked, well-fried, or thoroughly salted fish. Pollution of bodies of water by fecal matter can also be controlled.

Animals contract opisthorchiasis by eating raw, frozen, or unsalted fish that are infested with metacercaria. Severe infestation exhausts an animal and causes its fur to ruffle. Frequently, the sick animal experiences an increase in appetite. The diagnosis is based on clinical and epizootiological data and on the results of laboratory tests. Opisthorchiasis in animals is treated with hexachloroparaxylol and other anthelmintics. It is prevented by not feeding animals raw fish in regions where opisthorchiasis is prevalent.

References in periodicals archive ?
can be performed if opisthorchiasis is suspected (9).
Although opisthorchiasis is not frequently reported in Europe, it should be considered in cases of unexplained acute febrile eosinophilic syndrome with cholestasis, especially when patients confirm the ingestion of raw or undercooked aquatic products.
A large outbreak of Opisthorchis felineus in Italy suggests that opisthorchiasis develops as a febrile eosinophilic syndrome with cholestasis rather than a hepatitis-like syndrome.
Clinical parameters and results of opisthorchiasis diagnostic tests for 3 Dutch travelers after visiting Tuscany, Italy, in 2011 Symptom Liver enzyme Patient severity Eosinophilia level Index patient Severe Present Elevated Travel companion 1 Moderate Present Elevated Travel companion 2 Moderate Present Elevated Microscopy Fasciola spp.
Other districts and territories where opisthorchiasis is endemic include the Yekaterinburg (formally Sverdlovsk) District (13), Altai territory, Voronezh District (14), Volga River valley (15) and Archangelsk District in western Russia, and the Angara River (16), Krasnoyarsk territory, and Irkutsk District in eastern Siberia (2).
The growing volume of international travel and population migration, facilitated by increasing availability of air transportation, is responsible for cases of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis diagnosed in non-disease-endemic countries, mainly in North America.
For two patients from Siberia with suspected eosinophilic leukemia and carcinoma of the gallbladder, respectively, opisthorchiasis was diagnosed in Hamburg (29).
Unlike previous reports of opisthorchiasis diagnosed in non disease-endemic countries, which included patients infected in areas endemic for disease, the patients in the present series were infected outside an endemic region by food imported illegally from a country where the disease was highly prevalent.
Mairianga E, Mairiang R Clinical manifestation of opisthorchiasis and treatment.