Orange Book


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Orange Book

(security, standard)
A standard from the US Government National Computer Security Council (an arm of the U.S. National Security Agency), "Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, DOD standard 5200.28-STD, December 1985" which defines criteria for trusted computer products. There are four levels, A, B, C, and D. Each level adds more features and requirements.

D is a non-secure system.

C1 requires user log-on, but allows group ID.

C2 requires individual log-on with password and an audit mechanism. (Most Unix implementations are roughly C1, and can be upgraded to about C2 without excessive pain).

Levels B and A provide mandatory control. Access is based on standard Department of Defense clearances.

B1 requires DOD clearance levels.

B2 guarantees the path between the user and the security system and provides assurances that the system can be tested and clearances cannot be downgraded.

B3 requires that the system is characterised by a mathematical model that must be viable.

A1 requires a system characterized by a mathematical model that can be proven.

See also crayola books, book titles.

CD

(1) See carrier detect, candela and continuous delivery.

(2) (Change Directory) A command in DOS/Windows that changes the current command line directory (see Chdir). CD also does the same thing in Unix/Linux (see Unix commands).

(3) (Compact Disc) An optical digital audio disc that contains up to 74 minutes of hi-fi stereo sound. Introduced in the U.S. in 1983, the disc is a plastic platter (120mm/4.75" diameter) recorded on one side, with individual tracks playable in any sequence. Its storage capacity is from 650MB to 700MB. Other forms of CDs, such as CD-ROM, CD-I and Video CD, all stem from the original Compact Disc-Digital Audio (CD-DA) format. CDs can be played in CD, CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW and most DVD drives. For more on how CDs are made, see CD-ROM.

Sound is converted into digital code by sampling the sound waves 44,056 times per second and converting each sample into a 16-bit number. CDs use 1.411 million bits for each second of stereo sound, although this bandwidth requirement is reduced considerably when music compression formats are used (see MP3 and AAC). The tracks are recorded as microscopic pits in a groove that starts at the center of the disc and spirals outward to the edge.

A Note on Terminology
In the early 1990s when CD-ROMs first became popular, "CD" meant music, and "CD-ROM" meant data. Today, "CD" refers to both audio CDs and data CD-ROMs, which also include CD-R and CD-RW media. See CD-ROM and mini CD.

The Books
Documentation for various CD formats are found in books commonly known by the color of their covers.

 Red Book    - CD-DA (Audio)

 Yellow Book - CD-ROM (Data)

 Orange Book - CD-R, CD-RW,
                 Photo CD (Recordable)

 White Book  - VCD (Video)

 Blue Book   - CD Extra (Audio and data)

 Green Book  - CD-I (Interactive)


What Happened to the Phonograph?


The audio CD was introduced in the U.S. in 1983, and within five years, CDs and CD players exceeded the sales of LPs and turntables.

From Carved Sound to Pits
Unlike phonograph records, in which the platter is literally carved with sound waves, CDs are recorded as microscopic pits covered by a clear, protective plastic layer. Instead of a needle vibrating in a groove, a laser shines onto the pits, and the reflections are decoded. Audio CDs, as well as all variations of the CD (CD-ROM, CD-R, etc.) use a spiral recording track like a phonograph record, but start at the center, not the edge. See analog audio.

Better Dynamic Range
Digital sound is cleaner than phonograph records because the numbers are turned into sound electronically. There are no needle pops and clicks and no tape hiss if the original recording was digital. In addition, the CD can handle a wider range of volume. A soft whisper can be interrupted by a loud cannon blast. If a phonograph record were recorded with that much "dynamic range," the needle would literally jump out of the groove.

Too Harsh for Critical Ears?
Pops and clicks aside, from the onset of audio CDs, many critics claimed digital sound was harsh and not as musical as the vinyl platter. DVD-Audio and SACD, two advanced digital formats with superior sound quality, came out in 1999, but neither one became popular (see DVD-Audio and SACD). See high-resolution audio.

In the meantime, turntables and vinyl records are still manufactured, although in smaller quantities, and this legacy industry is expected to persist. See turntable, laser turntable and USB turntable.

NCSC

(1) (National Counterintelligence and Security Center of the U.S.) The NCSC was established in 2014 by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) to integrate and align counterintelligence and security missions and their responsibilities under one organization. Among other functions, the NCSC monitors cyber threats to the security of the United States. The NCSC works with the U.S. government cyber and intelligence communities to circumvent malicious actors both foreign and domestic, and it coordinates operations among the six largest federal cyber centers, the DHS Office of Intelligence and Analysis and private sector partners. See NCCIC.

(2) (National Computer Security Center of the U.S.) The NCSC was formed in 1981 as the DOD Computer Security Center, which was part of the NSA. The NCSC's key function was to support standards and evaluation of computing technology for secure applications by government agencies. Reduced in staff in the late 1980s and terminated in the mid-1990s, the NCSC was replaced by other agencies.

Known for sponsoring the Rainbow Series of papers summarizing minimum requirements for secure data storage and communications, the agency was also responsible for organizing the National Information Systems Security Conferences which ended with the 23rd conference in 2000. See Rainbow Series and NCSC security levels.

(3) (National Cyber Security Centre) The equivalent of the U.S. NCSC in the U.K. and Ireland, which were established in 2016 and 2015 respectively. See GCHQ.
References in periodicals archive ?
class="MsoNormalOther measures include delisting booksellers and suppliers from the Orange Book and stopping them from supplying orders to schools sponsored by both the government and donors.
The company said the HETLIOZ patent, which has been assigned the number 10,071,977, is now listed in the US Food and Drug Administration publication Approved Drug Products With Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, called the Orange Book.
Part I of this Comment discusses the development of the Orange Book restriction on the patent carve-out exception.
So my eye passes over that orange book jacket and I smile happily, remembering the pleasure I received when I first read this wonderful book.
In addition to wholesale and direct prices, each drug entry lists supplier name, trademarked and generic names, NDC numbers, route of administration, strength and quantity, and Orange Book Code, if applicable.
Rated AN in the Orange Book. Sterile PREDILUTED with normal saline.
Mr Oaten, 41, has been linked with the Orange Book group of MPs on the right of the Lib Dems.
The party is divided between social liberals, the so-called beard and sandals brigade, and the champions of economic freedom, who are associated with the recent Orange Book policy proposals.
Sick children will also be given their own personal health record - My Orange Book - which both they and their parents can complete to inform teachers and health professionals about their illnesses.
The Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation (or "Common Criteria") is a multinational successor to the previous Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC or "Orange Book" criteria).
The complaint alleges that Bristol-Myers Squibb knowingly made false claims to the Food and Drug Administration in November 2000 to have BuSpar listed in the Orange Book, essentially blocking the approval of generic versions for up to 30 months.