Orange River


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Orange River,

chief river of S Africa, c.1,300 mi (2,090 km) long, rising in the Maluti Mts., N Lesotho. It flows SW through Lesotho, then meanders northwest and west through central South Africa, forming the SW boundary of Free State and part of the South Africa–Namibia line before entering the Atlantic Ocean at Oranjemund. The VaalVaal
, river, c.750 mi (1,210 km) long, rising in Mpumalanga, NE South Africa, and flowing SW to the Orange River. It forms most of the northern border of the Free State. The river's flow is almost totally regulated and provides water power for industries on the Witwatersrand.
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 River is its chief tributary. The lower Orange River flows through the southern part of the KalahariKalahari
, arid plateau region, c.100,000 sq mi (259,000 sq km), in Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. The Kalahari, covered largely by reddish sand, lies between the Orange and Zambezi rivers and is studded with dry lake beds. Yearly rainfall varies from 5 in. (12.
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 and NamibNamib
, desert, c.800 mi (1,290 km) long and from 30 to 100 mi (50–160 km) wide, SW Africa, along the coast of Namibia. It occupies a rocky platform between the Atlantic Ocean and the escarpment of the interior plateau.
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 deserts; in very dry years it does not reach the sea. At the mouth of the river are rich alluvial diamond beds. Shoals, falls (Aughrabies Falls is 400 ft/122 m high), irregular flow, and a sandbar at its mouth limit navigation, but the river is used extensively for irrigation. The South African Orange River Project, which includes the Gariep and Vanderkloof dams, provides water for irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, and municipal water supplies. Tunnels divert water to the Great Fish and Sundays rivers.
References in periodicals archive ?
Diamond miner Namdeb says construction of the N$280 million Sendelingsdrif Mine located near the Orange River is progressing well.
Global's management recovered more than 500,000 carats of large high quality gemstone diamonds from properties along the Orange River in a previous venture.
Rock outcrops opposite the north of the Orange river mouth are also highly encouraging because such locations often contain the largest diamonds in the highest concentrations on the coast and in the offshore waters of Namibia.
South African grape growers in the Orange River are predicting exports of 11.
Of fundamental importance is the age and origin of the various outcropping and the relationship they may have to periods when diamonds may have been introduced into the region via a former course of the Orange River drainage system.
This overall synoptic pattern holds sway across the week end, with a cut-off development appearing over the ocean far to the west of the Orange river mouth, but inducing advection from, at least, the 25[degrees]S area, with rain expected: across the southern parts.
Over 90% of South African seedless grape growers in the increasingly important Orange River region have joined a new association to maintain quality standards and demand that potential exporters have strong financial guarantees to cover sales.
At Northbank, on the north bank of the Orange River Namibia, wide spaced drilling completed during the year has demonstrated a drill indicated resource of 30 million cubic metres of gravel deposited in a 4 kilometre by 900 metre paleochannel.
The project also include the upgrading of the raw water pump station at the Orange River, the replacement of raw water pumps and the upgrading of the sand filters at the Henkries water treatment plant.
Its southerly flow (marking its departure) is present until midweek, but once again, its northern stretch is limited to the Orange River latitude.
Forecasts for much of last week indicated weather in the 40s and heavy rain during the 45th running of the Athol to Orange River Rat Race.
Reports of late harvesting in the Orange River area were later compounded by news that heavy rains had actually wiped out some growers.