orbital velocity

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orbital velocity

The velocity of a satellite or other orbiting body at any given point in its orbit. It is also the velocity required by a satellite to enter an orbit around a body. The orbital velocity, v, is given by the expression
v = √[gR 2(2/r – 1/a )]
where R is the radius of the orbited body, r is the distance from the center of mass of the system (i.e. from the approximate center of the primary), a is the semimajor axis of the orbit, and g is the standard acceleration of gravity. For a circular orbit, r = a and the circular velocity is given by
v = √(gR 2/r )

To escape from an orbit a must tend to infinity and the escape velocity is then given by

v e = √(2gR 2/r )

The orbital period for an elliptical orbit is given by

P = 2πa 3/2/√gR 2

orbital velocity

[′ȯr·bəd·əl və′läs·əd·ē]
(astronomy)
The instantaneous velocity at which an earth satellite or other orbiting body travels around the origin of its central force field.
References in periodicals archive ?
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23, and changed Cassini's orbital speed around Saturn by about 22.3 feet per second (6.8 meters per second).
3 Summary of the change in the Moon's orbital speed caused by the Earth's time-retarded transverse gravitational field
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The orbital speed was varied from 300 to 3600 rpm with an orbiting radius of 3.0 mm; hence, the resultant sliding velocity was varied from 0.094 to 1.13 m/s.
Observers detecting X rays from that spot would see corresponding oscillations in intensity, which reflect the characteristic orbital speed.

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