data

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data

[′dad·ə, ′dād·ə, or ′däd·ə]
(computer science)
General term for numbers, letters, symbols, and analog quantities that serve as input for computer processing.
Any representations of characters or analog quantities to which meaning, if not information, may be assigned.
(science and technology)
Numerical or qualitative values derived from scientific experiments.

data

(data, data processing, jargon)
/day't*/ (Or "raw data") Numbers, characters, images, or other method of recording, in a form which can be assessed by a human or (especially) input into a computer, stored and processed there, or transmitted on some digital channel. Computers nearly always represent data in binary.

Data on its own has no meaning, only when interpreted by some kind of data processing system does it take on meaning and become information.

For example, the binary data 01110101 might represent the integer 117 or the ASCII lower case U character or the blue component of a pixel in some video. Which of these it represents is determined by the way it is processed (added, printed, displayed, etc.). Even these numbers, characters or pixels however are still not really information until their context is known, e.g. my bank balance is ?117, there are two Us in "vacuum", you have blue eyes.

data

(1) Technically, raw facts and figures, such as orders and payments, which are processed into information, such as balance due and quantity on hand. However, in common usage, the terms "data" and "information" are used synonymously. In addition, the term data is really the plural of "datum," which is one item of data. But datum is rarely used, and data is used as both singular and plural in practice.

The amount of data versus information kept in the computer is a tradeoff. Data can be processed into different forms of information, but it takes time to sort and sum transactions. Up-to-date information can provide instant answers.

A common misconception is that software is also data. Software is executed, or run, by the computer. Data are "processed." Thus, software causes the computer to process data.

(2) Any form of information whether on paper or in electronic form. Data may refer to any electronic file no matter what the format: database data, text, images, audio and video. Everything read and written by the computer can be considered data except for instructions in a program that are executed (software).

(3) May refer only to data stored in a database in contrast with text in a word processing document.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ordinal data type (multi state characters): Phenogram of taxonomic correlations between 32 OTUs based on 173 shell morphologic characters with ordinal data type was presented in Figure 10A.
TABLE 1 Ordinal Recycling Volume Measurement Measurement Recycling Data Form Ordinal data 1 2 3 4 Capacity full 0%- 26%- 51%- 76%- 25% 50% 75% 100% Measurement Recycling Data Form Ordinal data 5 6 7 8 Capacity full 101%- 126%- 151%- 176%- 125% 150% 175% 200% Note.
Weighted kappa scores, percent exact agreement, and percentage agreement within one point on the ordinal scale are presented for all ordinal data items in Table 2.
Unfortunately, many of these same textbooks fail to specify clearly that a Likert scale is ordinal and to keep in mind the correct statistical methods to use for this type of ordinal data.
This means the item does not produce interval level data and should be treated as ordinal data (so you cannot assume a score of 4 is twice as much as a score of 2).
We extended the algorithm to deal with ordinal data using custom made MATLAB code and implementing the sampling procedure suggested by Cowles (1996) [see Supplemental Material, Section S1 (doi:10.
Most of the clinical characteristic data were gathered as ordinal data with the exception of the weight and height which were interval data.
Categorical data were compared using Fisher's exact test and ordinal data using the Mann-Whitney U test.
Ordinal data will be gathered to show comparisons and growth of the students' knowledge and narrative data will be collected to describe the students' success with the modified instruction during the unit.
The parametric test for independent samples requires that both populations are normal and have equal variances whereas the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon T test only requires at least ordinal data.
Ordinal data on the coping strategies were compared with continuous or ordinal variables, such as age or social support, using regression and the Spearman coefficient.
For earlier periods (1970-1975 and 1976-1979), only ordinal data were available.