Ordinance of 1787

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Ordinance of 1787,

adopted by the Congress of Confederation for the government of the Western territories ceded to the United States by the states. It created the Northwest Territory and is frequently called the Northwest Ordinance. It was based on the ordinance of 1784, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, which provided for dividing the region into numerous territories. The 1784 ordinance never went into effect. In 1785 an ordinance was passed providing for division and sale of the lands. Subsequently, the application of the Ohio Company of AssociatesOhio Company of Associates,
organization for the purchase and settlement of lands on the Ohio River, founded at Boston in 1786. Its organizers were a group of New England men, most of them former American Revolutionary army officers. In July, 1787, one of the directors, Dr.
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 to purchase a large tract of land in the region forced Congress to act on political administration for the area. The able leaders of the company, Rufus PutnamPutnam, Rufus,
1738–1824, American Revolutionary general, one of the founders of the Ohio Company of Associates, b. Sutton, Mass.; cousin of Israel Putnam. In the French and Indian War he joined (1757) the army and saw action around Lake Champlain.
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 and Manasseh CutlerCutler, Manasseh
, 1742–1823, American clergyman, scientist, and one of the organizers of the Ohio Company of Associates, b. Killingly, Conn. A student of both law and theology, he was admitted to the bar in 1767 and was ordained (1771) pastor of the Congregational Church
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, were influential in the drafting of the ordinance, which was passed July 13, 1787. It set up a government in the region N of the Ohio River. A territorial governor, a secretary, and three judges were to be appointed by Congress, which would retain control until the population reached 5,000 voting citizens, when an elected legislature would be set up and the territory would obtain a nonvoting representative in the U.S. House of Representatives. When any portion of the territory reached a population of 60,000 or more, it could apply for admission to the Union as a state according to conditions laid down in the ordinance; there were to be not less than three or more than five states created out of the region (five were ultimately created). The ordinance also provided that no one born in the Northwest Territory should be a slave, that no law should ever be passed there that would impair the obligation of contract, that the fundamental rights and religious freedom be observed, and that education be promoted. The ordinance was the most significant achievement of Congress under the Articles of Confederation. It set the form by which subsequent Western territories were created and later admitted into the Union as states and marked the beginning of Western expansion of the United States.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which was enacted under the Articles of Confederation in order to establish a government for the territory northwest of the Ohio River, provided for a territorial Delegate.
That Pickering supported an even stronger prohibition in 1785 hardly destroys the traditional claim for Jefferson's influence on the shaping of the Ordinance of 1787.
It is not widely known that Illinois's first constitution (1818) exploited a loophole in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 by allowing black servitude within the state to continue until 1825.
In the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, Congress had prohibited slavery in the area that is now Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.
During the 13-year period from 1776 to 1789, the United States of America was governed by the Articles of Confederation and by other enactments, including the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
Better known than the Land Ordinance of 1785 and equally important was the ordinance of 1787, which established policies with respect to the government of the western lands and which, because it applied specifically to the Old Northwest, is generally called the Northwest Ordinance.
States that had previously laid claim to parts of the region had ceded their territories in anticipation of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
Had these reports, anticipating the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, been adopted, they would have forbidden slavery in the western territory after 1800.
Commemorating the bicentennial of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, this volume of essays commissioned by the College of Arts and Sciences of Ohio University follows up a collection by the same editors, Essays in Nineteenth-Century Economic History: The Old Northwest, published twelve years earlier.