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, city (1989 pop. 300,000), capital of North Ossetia-Alania, SE European Russia, on the Terek River and at the northern foot of the Caucasus. It is the starting point of the Georgian Military Road as well as an industrial center with an electric zinc smelter, lead
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(called Vladikavkaz until 1931 and Dzaudzhikau from 1944 to 1954), the capital of the Severnaia Osetiia ASSR. Situated on the Terek River. Population, 276,000 (1976; 44,000, 1897; 78,000, 1926; 131,000, 1939; 164,000, 1959; 236,000, 1970; 265,000, 1974). The city is divided into two urban raions.
Ordzhonikidze was founded in 1784 near the village of Dzaudzhikau as the Vladikavkaz Fortress, whose purpose was to guard the Georgian Military Road. In 1860 it was made the city of Vladikavkaz, which in 1863 became the administrative center of Terek Oblast. In 1875 the city was linked to Rostov-on-Don by the Vladikavkaz Railroad; by the end of the 19th century it had 54 factories and plants with an annual turnover of 2 million rubles. It was one of the centers of the revolutionary movement in the Northern Caucasus. Soviet power was proclaimed in November 1917. In February 1919 the city was seized by Denikin’s White Guard forces; it was liberated by the Red Army in March 1920.
The history of the city is closely connected with the name of G. K. Ordzhonikidze, who in 1918 was chairman of the Defense Council of the Northern Caucasus. From 1921 to 1924 the city was the capital of the Gortsy ASSR; in 1924–25, an independent administrative unit with the rights of a province; and from 1925 to 1936, part of Northern Caucasus Krai. Until 1930 it had the rights of an okrug, and until 1933 it was under the direct jurisdiction of the krai executive committee. On July 1, 1924, the city became part of Severnaia Osetiia Autonomous Oblast, and on July 7 of that year, the oblast’s administrative center. On December 5, 1936, Ordzhonikidze became the capital of the Severnaia Osetiia ASSR. Between Jan. 10, 1936, and May 26, 1937, it was also the administrative center of Northern Caucasus Krai, which from Mar. 13, 1937, was called Ordzhonikidze Krai. In the battle for the Caucasus during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, a fascist German grouping was halted and routed on the approaches to Ordzhonikidze in November 1942.
Modern Ordzhonikidze is an important industrial and cultural center. Newly developed industries play a leading role in its economy. They include the machine-building, instrument-making, and electrical-engineering industries, with the Gazoapparat and Elektrokontaktor plants, factories for the production of automotive electrical equipment and electric light bulbs, and a railroad car-repair enterprise. A chemical industry has been established, as well as a nonferrous metallurgy industry, represented by the Elektrotsink (galvanized zinc) and Pobedit factories. Other industries include the production of glass, silicate-ceramics, and building materials. There is also extraction of dolomite. Light industry is developing and includes clothing, knitwear, and footwear factories and the Kazbek Furniture Factory. The food industry is based on local agricultural products and raw materials. Three-quarters of the republic’s industrial production originates in Ordzhonikidze. The city is linked with the Rostov-on-Don-Baku main railroad line by an electrified branch line (23 km) and with Tbilisi by the Georgian Military Road.
V. A. MIAKININ
During the 19th and 20th centuries, a rectangular network of streets took form in Ordzhonikidze. A former Sunnite mosque (1906–08; architect I. G. Ploshko) has been preserved. During the Soviet period the city has been rebuilt and provided with all amenities. The tree-lined main thoroughfare, Peace Prospect, intersects the entire city. Centrally located Lenin Square has a monument to V. I. Lenin in bronze and granite (1957; sculptor Z. I. Azgur, architect G. A. Zakharov). Lenin Square is also the site of the Russian Drama Theater (1872) and of a department store (1938; architect L. M. Nappel’baum).
Freedom Square is the location of the House of Soviets (1936; architect B. R. Simonov), in front of which is a bronze and granite monument to G. K. Ordzhonikidze (1949; sculptor L. A. Ditrikh, architect B. V. Danchich). Freedom Square also has an administrative building (1965; architect G. V. Chknavorian) and a movie theater (1967; architect V. F. Belov). Other buildings in Ordzhonikidze include a television center (1959), the Spartak Stadium (1960), and Hotel Kavkaz (I960), all designed by T. M. Butaev. The city also has a railroad terminal (1962; architect N. D. Iakovenko), a palace of metallurgists (1966; architect G. V. Chknavorian), and a palace of pioneers (1970’s; architect A. I. Btemirov). A system of residential mikroraiony (neighborhood units) was constructed in 1967 (architect A. I. Btemirov).
Ordzhonikidze has a university, as well as agricultural, mining and metallurgy, and medical institutes. There are 12 specialized secondary educational institutions, among them mining and metallurgy, railroad-transport, electronic-instruments, and building technicums. The city has theaters for Ossetian and Russian drama, as well as musical and puppet theaters; there is also a philharmonic society. In addition, Ordzhonikidze has a planetarium, a television center, a museum of local lore, the S. M. Kirov and G. K. Ordzhonikidze museums, the K. Khetagurov Museum of Ossetian Literature, and an art museum.
K. L. Khetagurov lived, worked, and was buried in Ordzhonikidze.
REFERENCESLarina, V. I. Ocherki istorii gorodov Severnoi Osetii (XVIII-XIX vv.). Ordzhonikidze, 1960.
Kusov, G. I. Po gorodu Ordzhonikidze. Ordzhonikidze, 1963.
Semenov, L. P., A. A. Tedtoev, and G. I. Kusov. Ordzhonikidze—Vladikavkaz: Ocherki istorii goroda. Ordzhonikidze, 1972.
Gorod u sinikh gor. (Contains bibliography.) Ordzhonikidze, 1972.
a city (since 1956) under oblast jurisdiction in Dnepropetrovsk Oblast, Ukrainian SSR, 5 km from the Chertomlyk railroad station. Population, 39,000 (1974). Manganese ore is mined nearby in the Nikopol’ Basin. Ordzhonikidze has an ore-dressing combine, a mining-equipment repair factory, the Stroidetal’ Factory, and a bread-baking plant. It also has a museum of history and local lore and a branch of the Marganets Mining Technicum.
(called Kharagouli until 1949), an urban-type settlement and administrative center of Ordzhonikidze Raion, Georgian SSR. Located on the Chkherimela River of the Rioni River basin, Ordzhonikidze has a railroad station (Kharagouli) on the Samtredia-Khashuri line, 160 km northwest of Tbilisi. Its principal industry is food processing. The village of Goresha, near Ordzhonikidze, is the birthplace of G. K. Ordzhonikidze, whose house is now a museum.
an urban-type settlement in Sheki Raion, Azerbaijan SSR. Located 36 km north of the Evlakh railroad junction, Ordzhonikidze has a grain sovkhoz.