organic farming

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organic farming,

the practice of growing plants—especially for fruits and vegetables, but for ornamentals as well—without the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, or of raising animals without the use of growth regulators, synthetic pesticides, feed that is produced using synthetic pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers, and the like. Organic farmers and gardeners use short-lived, biodegradable pest-killers, biological pest control, rotation of crops, and manure and compost to control pests and provide plant nutrients. In the United States, as elsewhere, awareness of the environmental damage and threats to health (see pollutionpollution,
contamination of the environment as a result of human activities. The term pollution refers primarily to the fouling of air, water, and land by wastes (see air pollution; water pollution; solid waste).
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; environmentalismenvironmentalism,
movement to protect the quality and continuity of life through conservation of natural resources, prevention of pollution, and control of land use. The philosophical foundations for environmentalism in the United States were established by Thomas Jefferson,
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) caused by DDT, dieldrin, and other insecticidesinsecticides,
chemical, biological, or other agents used to destroy insect pests; the term commonly refers to chemical agents only. Chemical Insecticides

The modern history of chemical insecticides in the United States dates from 1867, when Paris green proved
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 and by the excessive use of chemical fertilizers fostered interest in organic gardening, particularly among home gardeners. Organic farming on a large scale is both more difficult and more costly than standard commercial farming, but an increasing market for organically grown, or "natural," foods supports a growing commercial organic farming sector in the United States. See also Integrated Pest ManagementIntegrated Pest Management
(IPM), planned program that coordinates economically and environmentally acceptable methods of pest control with the judicious and minimal use of toxic pesticides.
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; organic foodorganic food,
food raised without chemicals and processed without additives. Under standards adopted by the U.S. Agriculture Dept. (USDA) in 2000 and fully effective in 2002, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and antibiotics may not be used in raising organic foods, and the
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.

Bibliography

See J. I. Rodale et al., ed., The Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening (1959, repr. 1971); C. O. Foster, The Organic Gardener (1972).

References in periodicals archive ?
* Organic farmers don't get federal farm subsidies, nor do they benefit from federally funded research.
consumers now purchase organic products (Hartman Group, 2008), organic farmers have been overwhelmed by such rapid growth in their markets and were unable to match the pace of expansion with increases in their farm production (Dimitri and Oberholtzer, 2009).
When I asked Mike why he became an organic farmer, he replied that he "accidentally fell into it.
Catering to organic farmers and their market, the open-pit operation has increased in sales between 15 and 20 per cent each year since its inception, says Chris Caron, chemist and partner in the operation.
Bruce believes it is essential that anyone considering becoming an organic farmer gets a taste for what the job entails first.
Organic farmers are having an increasingly difficult time preventing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) from migrating into their fields.
Catholic church-sponsored organic farmers and fisherfolk in Indonesia say local seeds and natural pesticides are owned in common and should not be patented by individuals or companies.
She can spout off the minutiae of legislation concerning organic certification as quickly as she can rattle off the names of various organic farmers in Indiana, describing in a great detail one farmer's luscious red tomatoes.
Consumer, environmental and organic farmer critics of the rule say it fails to comply with the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990, which is the legislative basis for the rule.
In the case of the organic farmer, his fertilizers that include vermicompost and other materials like fermented fruit juice, fish amino acid and the like, are worth about the same.
Phil Stocker, the association's director of farmer and grower relations, added: "Unless something changes, there may be no agrienvironment benefit in being an organic farmer in Wales - which risks many dropping out altogether."
Northumberland organic farmer Steve Ramshaw explained that while the organic livestock sector had flourished, there were not so many organic arable farmers, which had resulted in a shortage of organic feed and the price of this feed soaring.

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