organic farming

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organic farming,

the practice of growing plants—especially for fruits and vegetables, but for ornamentals as well—without the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, or of raising animals without the use of growth regulators, synthetic pesticides, feed that is produced using synthetic pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers, and the like. Organic farmers and gardeners use short-lived, biodegradable pest-killers, biological pest control, rotation of crops, and manure and compost to control pests and provide plant nutrients. In the United States, as elsewhere, awareness of the environmental damage and threats to health (see pollutionpollution,
contamination of the environment as a result of human activities. The term pollution refers primarily to the fouling of air, water, and land by wastes (see air pollution; water pollution; solid waste).
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; environmentalismenvironmentalism,
movement to protect the quality and continuity of life through conservation of natural resources, prevention of pollution, and control of land use. The philosophical foundations for environmentalism in the United States were established by Thomas Jefferson,
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) caused by DDT, dieldrin, and other insecticidesinsecticides,
chemical, biological, or other agents used to destroy insect pests; the term commonly refers to chemical agents only. Chemical Insecticides

The modern history of chemical insecticides in the United States dates from 1867, when Paris green proved
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 and by the excessive use of chemical fertilizers fostered interest in organic gardening, particularly among home gardeners. Organic farming on a large scale is both more difficult and more costly than standard commercial farming, but an increasing market for organically grown, or "natural," foods supports a growing commercial organic farming sector in the United States. See also Integrated Pest ManagementIntegrated Pest Management
(IPM), planned program that coordinates economically and environmentally acceptable methods of pest control with the judicious and minimal use of toxic pesticides.
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; organic foodorganic food,
food raised without chemicals and processed without additives. Under standards adopted by the U.S. Agriculture Dept. (USDA) in 2000 and fully effective in 2002, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and antibiotics may not be used in raising organic foods, and the
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.

Bibliography

See J. I. Rodale et al., ed., The Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening (1959, repr. 1971); C. O. Foster, The Organic Gardener (1972).

References in periodicals archive ?
Chuck Harmon has been writing about organic gardening for many years.
At school she had never felt skilled at writing but she now began compiling fact sheets and articles to give advice on organic gardening, and found she had a natural flair at making various growing techniques more accessible to gardeners.
A major aim of organic gardening is to keep cultivation to a minimum.
Take a look at the Garden Organic website to get more ideas on these and other organic gardening concepts - www.
Garden Organic at Ryton, just outside Coventry, is now a world leader, respected around the world for its scientific research and educational work, contributing to the changes in attitude towards organic gardening.
Over the years, Down to Earth has seen a gradual acceptance of organic gardening products, and a gradual increase in business, Van Allen said.
While organic gardening seems to be a hot topic these days, many people do not know all the facts behind the practice.
He launched Organic Gardening magazine in 1945 and Prevention in 1950, so named because Rodale believed that eating organic foods would prevent the onset of disease, cancer, and poor health.
Easy Organic Gardening and Moon Planting de-hippifies moon planting.
EUROPE'S largest organic gardening charity, The Henry Doubleday Research Association, has given itself a snappier name, Garden Organic, as it launches a nationwide campaign called Get Set, Grow
Organic gardening involves using natural products and byproducts to grow plants and enrich soils.
It's possible through organic gardening, which is becoming an important part of the ``green movement'' emphasizing recycling and a reliance on environment-friendly processes and products.