Organophosphorus Pesticide

Organophosphorus Pesticide

 

any one of numerous pesticides that are organic derivatives of the acids phosphorus. Organophosphorus pesticides are used to combat crop pests, plant diseases, ectoparasites of domestic animals (body parasites), weeds, and synanthropic insects, mites, and ticks. They are also used as bactericides and plant growth regulators.

Organophosphorus pesticides have low stability in the environment, which prevents their accumulation in amounts dangerous for living organisms. Most decompose after application, with the formation of nontoxic products such as phosphoric acid, carbon dioxide, and water. Their disadvantages include the relatively high toxicity of many such pesticides for humans and animals, which necessitates the observation of safety precautions during application.

The annual world production of organophosphorus pesticides in 1975 exceeded 200,000 tons. There are more than 150 different organophosphorus pesticides, which are used as insecticides (karbofos, metafos, khlorofos), acaricides (metilnitrofos, octa-methyl pyrophosphoramide), fungicides (pirazofos, khinozan, inezin), herbicides (Falone, bensulid), and growth regulators (etefon andfosfon-D).

REFERENCES

Mel’nikov, N. N. Khimiia i tekhnologiiapestitsidov. Moscow, 1974.
Sistemnye fungitsidy. Moscow, 1975. (Translated from English.)
Fest, C, and K. J. Schmidt. The Chemistry of Organophosphorus Pesticides. Berlin, 1973.
Eto, M. Organophosphorus Pesticides: Organic and Biological Chemistry. Cleveland, Ohio, 1974.

N. N. MEL’NIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Keywords: Pesticides residues, Organochlorine pesticide, Organophosphorus pesticide, Milk, Maximum residues levels.
Multipathway organophosphorus pesticide exposures of preschool children living in agricultural and nonagricultural communities.
Among the molecular diversity of sixteen organophosphorus pesticide degrading isolates viz.
Interaction of toxic effect of the organophosphorus pesticide cyolane and schistosoma mansoni infection in male albino mice.
Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.
The role of oximes in the management of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.
Assessing the therapeutic efficacy of oxime therapies against percutaneous organophosphorus pesticide and nerve agent challenges in the Hartley guinea pig.
Predicting outcome using butyrylcholinesterase activity in organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning.
Among various pesticide classes, organophosphorus pesticide (OPPs) group is the most widely used class of agricultural pesticides to increase world food production [3, 4].
A study on the effect of organophosphorus pesticide malathion on hepato-renal and reproductive organs of Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).
Oximes in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning: systematic review of clinical trials.

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