Orissa


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Orissa,

state, India: see OdishaOdisha
, formerly Orissa
, state (2001 provisional pop. 36,706,920), 60,162 sq mi (155,820 sq km), E India, on the Bay of Bengal. Bhubaneswar is the capital. The relatively unindented coastline (c.
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.

Orissa

 

a state in India, in the eastern part of the Hindustan Peninsula. It has an area of 156,000 sq km and a population of 21.9 million (1971), most of whom are Oriya. About 8 percent of the people live in towns. The administrative center is Bhubaneswar.

Along the Bay of Bengal stretches a low-lying coastal plain, much of it occupied by the deltas of the Mahanadi, Brahmani, and Baitarani rivers. The slightly indented coast provides no good natural harbors. The Eastern Ghats, composed mainly of granite and gneiss, run parallel to the coast, rising to altitudes of 1,000–1,500 m. The eastern rim of the Deccan Plateau occupies a large part of the state. Orissa has a subequatorial monsoonal climate and receives up to 1,500 mm of precipitation annually. The mountain slopes are covered with dense deciduous monsoon forests, chiefly of sal and teak. Along the coast grow mangrove thickets. The plains have been almost completely plowed up.

Orissa is an agricultural state with a developing industry. About four-fifths of the population is employed in agriculture, which is oriented toward the raising of food crops. About four-fifths of the sown area is devoted to rice, and in the forested hilly regions the chief crops are legumes and millet. Orissa is the fourth leading producer of jute among the Indian states, and small amounts of cotton, oil-seed crops, and sugarcane are also grown. Since independence an irrigation system has been built in the Mahanadi river basin. There is fishing along the coast and on Lake Chilka.

Manganese, iron ore, and chromite are mined in Orissa. Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, and Sundargarh are the leading mining centers. Many of the state’s manufacturing enterprises have been established since independence. Large industries include a government-owned ferrous metallurgy plant and a mineral fertilizer plant at Raurkela; an aluminum plant and factories producing cables and rolled steel at Hirakud; ferromanganese plants at Joda and Rayagada; cement factories at Rajgangpur and Bargarh; refractories at Rajgangpur and elsewhere; and several cotton mills. There are government-owned hydroelectric power plants at Hirakud and Machkund. Handicrafts include weaving and the fashioning of artistic objects from silver and stone.

O. B. OSKOLKOVA

Historical survey. Orissa as a historical region derives its name from the principal inhabitants of the region, the Oriya. In antiquity the area was part of the powerful Kalinga state. From 1038 to 1435 Orissa was subjugated by the Ganga dynasty and from 1435 to 1540 by the Gajapati kings. In 1568, Orissa was conquered by the Muslim rulers of Bengal, and in 1576 by the Mughals. From 1714 to 1747 it was under the control of the Bengal Nawabs, and later of the Marathas. After Orissa became a possession of the British East India Company (1803), a large revolt against the British colonialists broke out in the area (1817–18). In 1936 it was constituted a separate province. After India gained its independence in 1947, Orissa became a state.

Orissa

a state of E India, on the Bay of Bengal: part of the province of Bihar and Orissa (1912--36); enlarged by the addition of 25 native states in 1949. Capital: Bhubaneswar. Pop.: 36 706 920 (2001). Area: 155 707 sq. km (60 119 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
The monsoon is likely to advance further into eastern Orissa state, the rest of peninsular India, southern parts of Chattisgarh and West Bengal this week.
Jonathan Rout, Casa co-ordinator for Orissa, says the flood was caused by the Orissa state Government's poor judgment in opening the gates of the Hirakud dam, a Hydroelectric facility around 400km west of Orissa's state capital Bhubaneswar, in a bid to stop a torrent of rainwater inundating Orissa from the neighbouring state of Chattisgarh.
Reports on the early historic and early medieval Buddhist monasteries of Lalitagiri and Udayagiri in coastal Orissa are welcome additions to our knowledge about the history of Buddhism in this region, especially as the beginnings of Lalitagiri date back to pre-Christian times, so far the earliest monastic remains in Orissa.
Our trade development mission to Orissa will open the doors to new and very excitingOopportunities in this key part of India.
Ramulu and Devendra Kumar Aggarwal on Friday pronounced the suspension of the environmental license POSCO steel plant in Orissa.
Rebel activity is mainly concentrated in Chhattisgarh state, which borders Orissa, but has spread to around half of India's 29 states.
The eastern side of India, including Orissa, is exposed to tropical cyclones from the Bay of Bengal and the western coast from the Arabian Sea.
Although literacy -- including in the `English medium' -- is spreading, archaeology is not appreciated by everyone in Orissa.
The Ministry of Environment and Forests ("MOEF") in a statement issued today refused the final approval to the Orissa Mining Corporation ("OMC") proposal for the bauxite mining at Niyamgiri hills, in the state of Orissa, following the recommendation of Dr.
Jim Seethram, Orissa s founder and CEO, will undertake an expanded role with Gemstone that will comprise overseeing Orissa.
Modi, the political showman, played to the gallery beginning his speech in Odiya which he appeared to speak better than BJD supremo and Orissa Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik.
26 ( ANI ): Italian Consul General Joel Melchiori has hailed the release of an Italian tourist, Claudio Colangelo, who was kidnapped along with a friend by Maoist rebels in eastern Orissa state two weeks ago.