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state, India: see OdishaOdisha
, formerly Orissa
, state (2001 provisional pop. 36,706,920), 60,162 sq mi (155,820 sq km), E India, on the Bay of Bengal. Bhubaneswar is the capital. The relatively unindented coastline (c.
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a state in India, in the eastern part of the Hindustan Peninsula. It has an area of 156,000 sq km and a population of 21.9 million (1971), most of whom are Oriya. About 8 percent of the people live in towns. The administrative center is Bhubaneswar.

Along the Bay of Bengal stretches a low-lying coastal plain, much of it occupied by the deltas of the Mahanadi, Brahmani, and Baitarani rivers. The slightly indented coast provides no good natural harbors. The Eastern Ghats, composed mainly of granite and gneiss, run parallel to the coast, rising to altitudes of 1,000–1,500 m. The eastern rim of the Deccan Plateau occupies a large part of the state. Orissa has a subequatorial monsoonal climate and receives up to 1,500 mm of precipitation annually. The mountain slopes are covered with dense deciduous monsoon forests, chiefly of sal and teak. Along the coast grow mangrove thickets. The plains have been almost completely plowed up.

Orissa is an agricultural state with a developing industry. About four-fifths of the population is employed in agriculture, which is oriented toward the raising of food crops. About four-fifths of the sown area is devoted to rice, and in the forested hilly regions the chief crops are legumes and millet. Orissa is the fourth leading producer of jute among the Indian states, and small amounts of cotton, oil-seed crops, and sugarcane are also grown. Since independence an irrigation system has been built in the Mahanadi river basin. There is fishing along the coast and on Lake Chilka.

Manganese, iron ore, and chromite are mined in Orissa. Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, and Sundargarh are the leading mining centers. Many of the state’s manufacturing enterprises have been established since independence. Large industries include a government-owned ferrous metallurgy plant and a mineral fertilizer plant at Raurkela; an aluminum plant and factories producing cables and rolled steel at Hirakud; ferromanganese plants at Joda and Rayagada; cement factories at Rajgangpur and Bargarh; refractories at Rajgangpur and elsewhere; and several cotton mills. There are government-owned hydroelectric power plants at Hirakud and Machkund. Handicrafts include weaving and the fashioning of artistic objects from silver and stone.


Historical survey. Orissa as a historical region derives its name from the principal inhabitants of the region, the Oriya. In antiquity the area was part of the powerful Kalinga state. From 1038 to 1435 Orissa was subjugated by the Ganga dynasty and from 1435 to 1540 by the Gajapati kings. In 1568, Orissa was conquered by the Muslim rulers of Bengal, and in 1576 by the Mughals. From 1714 to 1747 it was under the control of the Bengal Nawabs, and later of the Marathas. After Orissa became a possession of the British East India Company (1803), a large revolt against the British colonialists broke out in the area (1817–18). In 1936 it was constituted a separate province. After India gained its independence in 1947, Orissa became a state.


a state of E India, on the Bay of Bengal: part of the province of Bihar and Orissa (1912--36); enlarged by the addition of 25 native states in 1949. Capital: Bhubaneswar. Pop.: 36 706 920 (2001). Area: 155 707 sq. km (60 119 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
In Bhubaneshwar, the Orissa state capital, government workers and volunteers were putting together hundreds of thousands of food packages for relief camps.
Raghuanth Mohanty, Orissa state industry and mines minister, said the decision was "extremely unfortunate".
Keonjhar district of Orissa State, India is afflicted with high incidence of malaria since many decades (1-3).
Yoshitani also visited the coastal lines of Orissa, Dhamra port site, and had a meeting with the Orissa State Chief Minister Mr.
The accident took place in the hilly Deogarh district in Orissa state on Sunday night when the driver lost control of the vehicle while negotiating a sharp turn on the road, police said.
I appeal to the Maoist parties, Orissa state committee, also I appeal Andhra Orissa border committee and also I appeal Mangpur division committee, in a capacity given by the Maoist party Orissa state organising committee, I appeal the entire Maoist committees working under Orissa jurisdiction that they should not indulge in any violence and provocative activities.
29 to protest continuing violence against Christians that has left at least five people dead in India's eastern Orissa state.
A BRIDGE that gave way due to floods is seen on the national highway between Balasore and Khagagpur in Orissa state, India.
The missile, designed to carry conventional warheads, was fired from India's main missile testing centre in Orissa state, in eastern India.
The test from a ship in the Bay of Bengal off the eastern coast of Orissa state was the sixth in a series.
Chatur was forced to build a raft from the trunks of banana trees and bamboo, paddle six kilometres and then walk four more to get rice and jaggery (unpurified sugar made from sugar cane) for his wife Pabitra, son Basanta and daughters Nirupama and Alok to eat in the aftermath of the flood - which aid workers say was caused after the Orissa state government mistakenly opened the gates to a dam in another part of Orissa - causing rivers around Tikipara to burst their banks.
This world-scale facility, comprising a new export refinery and petrochemicals complex, will be built in Orissa State.

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