, city (1990 pop. 114,216), Veracruz state, E central Mexico. It is the commercial center of a prosperous bean and sugar growing region. The development of water power has stimulated manufacturing industries, especially cotton and wool textile factories. Orizaba is a popular vacation spot. Mineral springs are nearby, and the majestic cone of Citlaltépetl
rises in the distance. The city is also a cultural center noted for its fine-arts institute. The federal school in Orizaba houses murals by José Clemente Orozco. In 1862, Benito Juárez, seeking to forestall foreign intervention in Mexican affairs, called a conference at Orizaba of foreign representatives; his efforts failed. French forces subsequently used the city as a base for their invasion of Mexico.