Orléans, Louis Philippe Joseph, duc d'

Orléans, Louis Philippe Joseph, duc d'

(lwē fēlēp` zhôzĕf` dük dôrlāäN`), known as

Philippe Égalité

(āgälētā`), 1747–93, French revolutionist; great-grandson of Philippe II, duc d'Orléans (see OrléansOrléans
, family name of two branches of the French royal line.

The house of Valois-Orléans was founded by Louis, duc d'Orléans (see separate article), whose assassination (1407) caused the civil war between Armagnacs and Burgundians.
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, family) and great-great-great-grandson of King Louis XIII. First duke of Montpensier and then duke of Chartres, he succeeded his father as duke of Orléans in 1785. A libertine, he squandered his immense wealth, then, to recoup his fortune, lined the gardens of his Palais Royal with shops. The gardens became a gathering point for the popular elements of Paris. He became a leader of the discontented faction in the Assembly of the Notables (1787), and he was briefly exiled for protesting the king's attempt to force the Parlement of Paris to consent to taxation. As a deputy to the States-General (1789), he was one of the liberal nobles who joined the third estate (June 25, 1789). After incurring blame for disturbances in the capital, he accepted a mission (Oct., 1789–July, 1790) to England. His liberal views were suspected of cloaking an ambition to become constitutional monarch, and as the revolution progressed he lost the confidence of both republicans and royalists. After exchanging his title for the name Citizen Égalité, he was elected to the National Convention (Sept., 1792), where he joined the MountainMountain, the,
in French history, the label applied to deputies sitting on the raised left benches in the National Convention during the French Revolution. Members of the faction, known as Montagnards [Mountain Men] saw themselves as the embodiment of national unity.
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 and voted for the execution of King Louis XVI. When his eldest son deserted to the enemy with General DumouriezDumouriez, Charles François
, 1739–1823, French general in the French Revolutionary Wars. After fighting in the Seven Years War, he was employed by King Louis XV on several secret missions.
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, Philippe Égalité was arrested (Apr., 1793). He was guillotined (November) during the Reign of Terror. His son became King Louis PhilippeLouis Philippe
, 1773–1850, king of the French (1830–48), known before his accession as Louis Philippe, duc d'Orléans. The son of Philippe Égalité (see Orléans, Louis Philippe Joseph, duc d'), he joined the army of the French Revolution,
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See study by G. A. Kelly (1982).