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see OrrmulumOrrmulum
or Ormulum
, Middle English collection of homilies on the Gospels, in verse, comprising about 10,000 lines in all. The collection was written c.1200 by Orrm (or Orrmin), an Augustinian canon of Lincolnshire.
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In Ormulum the two verbs should in principle be differentiated by the length of the stem vowel through the spelling system peculiar to this text.
Includes: Nicholas Watson and Fiona Somerset, "Preface: On 'Vernacular'"; Nicholas Watson, "Introduction: King Solomon's Tablets"; Meg Worley, "Using the Ormulum to Redefine Vernacularity"; Claire M.
In the course of a recent investigation of the OrMulum manuscript (Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Junius 1),(1) patient scrutiny of the text (including erased passages) led to the identification of three words not previously recorded in the Ormulum,(2) and, indeed, rare elsewhere.
again using the Toronto Concordance to seek out instances of ofsittan; and Robert Burchfield briefly lists and comments on 'Line-End Hyphens in the Ormulum Manuscript (MS Junius 1)'.
Intended to help preachers read the work aloud, Ormulum shows, for example, the quantity (length) of the vowels by doubling a consonant after a short vowel in a closed syllable, and it distinguishes by three separate symbols sounds that in the Anglo-Celtic or insular script of Old English were all represented by a single symbol.
Holographs like Ormulum can hardly be found among prose texts from the Innsbruck Corpus, with the notable exception of epistolary literature.
Terry Hoad asks whether there is an Old English weak genitive plural in -an as well as -ena, and concedes 'a certain amount of evidence' for it; Robert Burchfield classifies 'Line-End Hyphens in the Ormulum Manuscript', Jane Roberts gives 'Some Reflections on the Metre of Christ III ', and Douglas Gray 'A Note on Floris and Blauncheflur'.
Ormin's Ormulum, a religious handbook written about 1215, is composed entirely in English.
However, in this study the evidence comes not from The Ormulum but from two Late Old English MSS, as the use of double consonants to indicate vowel shortness is also occasionally attested in some earlier texts (Anderson--Britton 1997: 34, 51, 1999: 305, 317-323; Smith 2007: 107; and Laing 2008: 7-8).
Simultaneously Luick (1940: 435) states that texts from the early 13th century, like Trinity Homilies, Kentish Glosses, Ancrene Riwle, Ormulum or Vices and Virtues, lack any traces of the [ei : ai] merger.
As regards our problem, an early text which offers evidence drastically different from the rest is the Ormulum (c1200), where take prevails over nim (33 NIM : 340 TAK in Rynell 1948).
On ye another occasion, in the passage devoted to the prosody of Ormulum, the author ventures on a claim that "[w]hatever Orm's full aims were, not many readers have gotten past a few dozen lines before falling asleep" (p.