Orphics

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Orphics

 

members of the ancient Greek religious and mystical movement Orphism. The origin of Orphism is connected with the ecstatic mysteries of Dionysus-Zagreus. Orphism spread from Thrace to Greece, southern Italy, and later Rome. The Orphics considered themselves followers of Orpheus and his pupil Musaeus, who supposedly left a secret tradition for the initiates. Fragments of Orphic literature have been preserved, the earliest of which date from the sixth century B.C.; they include hymns and other texts in verse composed in ancient Orphic style and dating from Roman times.

A myth dealing with the creation of man is central to Orphic doctrine. The bisexual Phanes, born from the egg of the world (fragments of the shell form heaven and earth), was swallowed by Zeus, who thus concentrated all divine potentials within himself. Zeus then produced an heir, the future blessed master of the world—Dionysus-Zagreus. However, the Titans tore Zagreus to pieces and devoured him. Zeus slew them with lightning, and from their ashes man was born; man thus combined within himself the evil nature of the Titans and the good nature of Zagreus.

To free the divine soul imprisoned within the body, it was necessary to observe special purification rituals and ascetic prescripts, such as abstention from meat; the Orphics claimed secret knowledge of these rituals. Bliss in the next life awaited the pious, and torment in Tartarus awaited the impious. At the same time, a doctrine of metempsychosis (the reincarnation of souls) was developed. The relationship of Orphism and Pythagorean-ism is unquestionable; however, the question of priority remains in dispute.

In the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., the Orphics were particularly successful among the lower strata of the population. Many authors ridiculed Orphic doctrine and rituals as plebeian charlatanism. However, Neoplatonism attempted to make the Orphic texts its “sacred writ” in order to counterbalance the Bible of the Jews and Christians.

WORKS

Kern, O. Orphicorum fragmenta, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1963.

REFERENCES

Losev, A. F. Antichnaia mifologiia v ee istoricheskom razvitii, part 1. Moscow, 1957. (Chapter 4 with translations.)
Guthrie, W. K. C. Orpheus and Greek Religion, 2nd ed. London, 1952.
Moulinier, L. Orphée et l’orphisme a l’époque classique. Paris, 1955.

S. S. AVERINTSEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Media Contact: Michelle Hefley, Orphic Therapeutics, Inc.
In this score, the mezzo-soprano sings the Ashbery text while the bass sings fragments of Greek texts chosen by me, starting with the Orphic creation story, including a few lines attributed by Plato to the actual poet, Orpheus.
Oddly, in this time of economic challenge, we are seeing a resurgence of the Orphic leader.
In the Orphic tradition of Greek myth, Chaos exists at the beginning as a primordial entity.
5) Schneider argues that that the Olympian/Chthonic opposition is more important to the poem than the narrower Apollonian/Dionysian opposition, and she (like Zonana) uses Muller's tripartite classification of ancient singers (the followers of Apollo, the Phrygian worshippers, and the Orphic followers of Dionysus and Demeter) in preference to Nietzsche's binary model of Apollonian versus Dionysian (Schneider, p.
The second section is about motion and the expression of a will and agency in literary automata in Orphic poetry, devotional rhetoric and civic pageantry.
I've set two wonderful texts (the Homeric and Orphic Hymns to Gaia) which, although from ancient Greece, speak directly to us today.
Milanovic's "lonely scribe" finds solace in the Orphic myth and the natural cycle, where death brings rebirth.
1) I also had the privilege of writing the introduction to his great translation of Campana's Orphic Songs for the Field series along the way.
In an essay on orphic tradition, the latter intuited the powerful effect Merini's psychological troubles would have on her work.
The book unmistakably turns its back on the Orphic preoccupations with the hereafter that characterized Greene's Catholic novels, and wholeheartedly embraces a Bacchic emphasis on the here and now.
The recently discovered Strasbourg and Derveni papyri manage to shed considerable new light on the Orphic tradition and on Empedocles.