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a short-lived movement in art founded in 1912 by Robert DelaunayDelaunay, Robert
, 1885–1941, French painter; husband of Sonia Delaunay-Terk. By 1909, Delaunay had progressed from a neoimpressionist phase to cubism, applying cubist principles to the exploration of color.
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, Frank KupkaKupka, Frank or František
, 1871–1957, Czech painter, etcher, and illustrator. Kupka illustrated works by Reclus and Leconte de Lisle and an edition of Aristophanes' Lysistrata.
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, the DuchampDuchamp, Marcel
, 1887–1968, French painter, brother of Raymond Duchamp-Villon and half-brother of Jacques Villon. Duchamp is noted for his cubist-futurist painting Nude Descending a Staircase,
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 brothers, and Roger de la Fresnaye. Apollinaire coined the term orphism to describe the lyrical, shimmering chromatic effects that these painters sought to introduce into the drier aesthetic of cubismcubism,
art movement, primarily in painting, originating in Paris c.1907. Cubist Theory

Cubism began as an intellectual revolt against the artistic expression of previous eras.
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. Moving toward pure abstraction, the orphists saw painting as sensation. For a time their number included Léger, Picabia, Chagall, and Gliezes. The movement influenced the German Blaue ReiterBlaue Reiter, der
[Ger.,=the blue rider], German expressionist art movement, lasting from 1911 to 1914. It took its name from a painting by Kandinsky, Le cavalier bleu.
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 group and the American synchromists Stanton Macdonald-WrightMacdonald-Wright, Stanton,
1890–1973, American artist, b. Charlottsville, Va. Macdonald-Wright was among the first Americans to paint in a totally abstract mode. Together with Morgan Russell, he founded synchromism in 1912.
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 and Morgan RussellRussell, Morgan,
1886–1953, American painter, b. New York City. Russell, together with Stanton Macdonald-Wright, founded synchromism in Paris in 1913. Structuring his paintings on interlocking planes of color, Russell created volume and mass with color alone, as in
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a school of French painting that arose in the second decade of the 20th century. It was given its name in 1912 by Apollinaire. Orphism developed from cubism yet revealed a kinship to the modernist schools of futurism and expressionism. The movement’s founder and principal theorist was R. Delaunay. Other members included F. Kupka, F. Picabia, and M. Duchamp. The group sought to express the dynamics of movement and the musicality of rhythms by means of the interpenetration of primary colors and the intersection of curvilinear surfaces. The orphists very soon turned to abstractionism.