Figures 14b and 14c are azimuthal equidistant projections; they show orthodromes from the centre as straight lines and give true distances and departure directions from the projection centre (Gudmundsson and Alerstam, 1998b).
Departure directions from the New Siberian Islands are approximately 60 [degrees] (grey phalarope) and 36 [degrees] (pectoral sandpiper) along orthodromes (Fig.
Loxodromes between the New Siberian Islands and the three main New Zealand/Australian areas in Figure 14 have bearings towards approximately 172 [degrees], 180 [degrees], and 191 [degrees, while the rather similar orthodromes have departure bearings from the New Siberian Islands at 157 [degrees], 180 [degrees], and 203 [degrees, respectively.
The flight to the Bering Sea region must represent a detour since there are no major winter quarters to be found along either orthodromes or loxodromes with bearings around 105 [degrees] from northeast Siberia (Fig.
Smit and Piersma, 1989), the departure directions are approximately 237 [degrees], 226 [degrees], and 206 [degrees] for loxodromes and 293 [degrees], 287 [degrees], and 24[degrees] for orthodromes (Fig.