a piece of equipment that is used for preventing and treating deformities and injuries of the musculoskeletal system in man. Orthopedic devices include bandages, splints, prostheses, and special apparatus. Several types of orthopedic devices are distinguished. A fixing device is designed to either completely or partially restrict movements in a joint; examples are hinged splints, which preserve a certain range of movement in a joint, and rigid splints. Relieving devices are used to relieve pressure on an ailing part by transferring support to healthy parts of an extremity; examples include the Thomas splint and the Voskoboinikova apparatus. Corrective devices are used to gradually correct a deformity; these include corsets, splints, orthopedic footwear, and insoles and other devices to correct abnormal positions of the foot. Compression-distraction devices correct acquired or congenital deformities of the extremities, for example, curvature, shortening, and pseudarthrosis; they include the Gudushauri, Ilizarov, Sivash, and Volkov-Oganesian apparatus.
Chisels, osteotomes, electric and pneumatic saws, and ultrasonics are used to dissect bones in order to eliminate deformities or to join bone fragments. Rods, pins, plates, and screws are used in osteosynthesis. Joint defects are replaced by plastic and metal internal prostheses.
M. V. VOLKOV