Zhao, "Stress analyses and fatigue evaluation of rib-to-deck joints in steel orthotropic decks," International Journal of Fatigue, vol.
Vejrum, "Analysis of an orthotropic deck stiffened with a cement-based overlay," Journal of Bridge Engineering, vol.
Wu, "Fatigue load models for orthotropic deck of steel bridge in China," in Proceedings of the 4th Orthotropic Bridge Conference, Tianjin, China, 2015.
Despite their popularity overseas, the percentage of orthotropic decks constructed in the United States remains low.
"Over the last few decades, improved knowledge in regard to the design and performance of orthotropic decks has made them a popular choice for renovating older decks here in the United States," says John Fisher, professor emeritus of civil engineering at Lehigh University.
When first introduced in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s, orthotropic decks represented a new and relatively unfamiliar technology for bridge designers.
According to Benjamin Tang, with FHWA's Office of Bridge Technology, current research on bridge performance indicates that stiffer orthotropic decks with wider ribs, along with prototype testing, could result in good performance and long bridge life.
At Lehigh University, for example, Fisher and his colleagues conducted cyclical traffic loading tests on several orthotropic decks placed during retrofit projects on bridges in New York City, such as the Bronx-Whitestone and Williamsburg Bridges.
Rust-resistant paints and weathering steel, which rusts only to a given point while maintaining its structural integrity, are material options for orthotropic decks. Another technique, hot-dip galvanizing, involves dipping small bridge parts such as railings and lampposts in a zinc solution to make them rust-resistant.
He specializes in the investigation of suspension systems of long span suspension bridges, in the design of orthotropic decks
, and he has made major contributions to the design of the San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge.
On the award-winning Throgs Neck Bridge project for MTA Bridges and Tunnels, Parsons investigated and identified the causes of fatigue cracks on multiple components of the orthotropic deck
approach spans of the bridge, which carries I-295 over the East River in New York City.