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(ō`sāj, ōsāj`), indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). In prehistoric times they lived with the Kansa, the Ponca, the Omaha, and the Quapaw in the Ohio valley, but by 1673 they had migrated to the vicinity of the Osage River in Missouri. They often conducted war against other Native Americans, and in the early 18th cent. allied themselves with the French against surrounding tribes, such as the Illinois. The Osage had a typical Plains-area culture (see under Natives, North AmericanNatives, North American,
peoples who occupied North America before the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th cent. They have long been known as Indians because of the belief prevalent at the time of Columbus that the Americas were the outer reaches of the Indies (i.e.
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). One distinctive trait, however, was the tribal division between the Wazhazhe, or meat eaters, and the Tsishu, or vegetarians.

In 1802, according to Lewis and Clark, three groups constituted the Osage—the Great Osage, on the Osage River; the Little Osage, farther up the same river; and the Arkansas band, on the Vermilion River, a tributary of the Arkansas. They then numbered some 5,500. By a series of treaties begun in 1810 the Osage ceded to the United States their extensive territory in Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma, and they moved to a reservation in N central Oklahoma. They have since been given the right to own their land individually. The discovery of oil on their reservation land in the early 20th cent., plus their landholdings, contributed to the prosperity of the Osage. In 1990 there were over 10,000 Osage in the United States. The Osage Museum in Pawhuska, Okla., the oldest continuous tribal museum in the country, documents their history.


See F. La Flesche, The Osage Tribe (1921, repr. 1970) and War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians (1939); J. J. Mathews, The Osages, Children of the Middle Waters (1961); W. D. Baird, The Osage People (1972).


river, c.360 mi (580 km) long, formed by the confluence of the Marais des Cygnes and the Little Osage rivers, W Mo. It flows NE to join the Missouri River near Jefferson City. Bagnell Dam (completed 1931) across the Osage River impounds the Lake of the Ozarks and also provides hydroelectricity. The power produced there is consumed mainly by St. Louis. The Osage River basin project provides for flood control, hydroelectric power, and recreational facilities.
References in periodicals archive ?
The STACK JV has elected to participate in the drilling of the first scheduled Osage well, under the Farm-In Agreement, and pay its proportionate working interest share of costs related to drilling and completion (47.
As Grann's narrative begins, the Osage people--who twice had been forced to relocate, once from their traditional land in present-day Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma, and once from the Kansas territory the U.
Though the Osage style baby boards have been almost totally relegated to museum displays, they were once a very functional means of portable infant care.
Several years later, an Osage Indian pointed out to a white trader a rainbow sheen on the surface of a creek.
government drove the Osages from their territory in Kansas to northeastern Oklahoma, no one knew about the rich oil deposits below the surface of their new land.
Consequently commencing with Ate my homework, Osage County First Grade and Kitty went right through the alphabet again hurling hairballs, loitering under the no loitering sign, writing on the walls, and, you get the idea .
Hess presents family archives and interviews with prominent Osage members that reveal parallel histories with strikingly different voices and perspectives.
AUGUST: OSAGE COUNTRY Dysfunctional panto with spiteful characters Stephen King might envy.
In contrast to speculative investments made recently in the biologicals segment, the $146 million Osage plant proclaims its "state of the industry" with more than 10,000 tons of concrete and 1,700 tons of steel.
Our contractors and supervisors performed in an extremely efficient manner, which directly benefits Osage shareholders.
The Osage Nation's debate over citizenship reform between 2004 and 2006 sheds light on the complicated nature of asserting sovereignty in twenty-first-century Native America.
Banks," Tracy Letts, "August: Osage County," John Ridley, "12 Years a Slave"; Letty Aronson, "Blue Jasmine," Anthony Bregman, "Enough Said," Emma Tillinger Koskoff, Richard Suckle, "American Hustle"