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, indigenous people of North America

Osage (ōˈsāj, ōsājˈ), indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). In prehistoric times they lived with the Kansa, the Ponca, the Omaha, and the Quapaw in the Ohio valley, but by 1673 they had migrated to the vicinity of the Osage River in Missouri. They often conducted war against other Native Americans, and in the early 18th cent. allied themselves with the French against surrounding tribes, such as the Illinois. The Osage had a typical Plains-area culture (see under Natives, North American). One distinctive trait, however, was the tribal division between the Wazhazhe, or meat eaters, and the Tsishu, or vegetarians.

In 1802, according to Lewis and Clark, three groups constituted the Osage—the Great Osage, on the Osage River; the Little Osage, farther up the same river; and the Arkansas band, on the Vermilion River, a tributary of the Arkansas. They then numbered some 5,500. By a series of treaties begun in 1810 the Osage ceded to the United States their extensive territory in Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma, and they moved to a reservation in N central Oklahoma. They have since been given the right to own their land individually. The discovery of oil on their reservation land in the early 20th cent., plus their landholdings, contributed to the prosperity of the Osage. In 1990 there were over 10,000 Osage in the United States. The Osage Museum in Pawhuska, Okla., the oldest continuous tribal museum in the country, documents their history.


See F. La Flesche, The Osage Tribe (1921, repr. 1970) and War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians (1939); J. J. Mathews, The Osages, Children of the Middle Waters (1961); W. D. Baird, The Osage People (1972).


, river, United States
Osage, river, c.360 mi (580 km) long, formed by the confluence of the Marais des Cygnes and the Little Osage rivers, W Mo. It flows NE to join the Missouri River near Jefferson City. Bagnell Dam (completed 1931) across the Osage River impounds the Lake of the Ozarks and also provides hydroelectricity. The power produced there is consumed mainly by St. Louis. The Osage River basin project provides for flood control, hydroelectric power, and recreational facilities.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Exposing the turbulent history of the relations between whites and the Osage Nation over the course of more than a century, this book provides a look at the prejudices that continue to cast a shadow over our country, and how, ultimately, a team from the fledgling FBI, led by old-style Texas lawman Tom White, solved a shocking murder case directed at members of the Osage Nation.
"He's also a dreamer sharing his vision for where he sees our company going, being a voice for Native American gaming and finding new ways to partner with the communities around us," said Meredith Nelson, media operations manager of Osage Casinos.
Broadly speaking, the federal government is the primary reason Osage people suffered and continue to suffer these outrages.
Before passing through Fairfax, the tornado was seen nine miles northwest of Pearsonia in Osage County, which was 25 miles from the Kansas border.
Our aim was to determine whether or not squirrels would eat Osage seeds and/or move the fruits away from the parent plant.
Osage County First Grade enjoyed learning those Spanish words, and began cultivating use of their own imagination to fashion stories and pictures filled with some of that joyous fun and excitement.
In Killers of the Flower Moon, journalist David Grann describes how Congress made the Osage dependent on whites who could gain from their deaths and how leading Oklahomans conspired to perpetrate and cover up mass murder.
In addition to Jerry's construction article on Osage cradles, Sandy Rhoades of Falls Village, Connecticut shows a pair of cradles he constructed from Jerry's 1983 article.
"Lucy is truly an angel of mercy for the citizens of Osage County."
I'm an urban person, whose Osage father was too tenderhearted to hunt, but I have friends who hunt for food, and I eat meat.